IX.   REFERENCES

The following sources contain useful information for the study of possible historic landscapes encountered in the course of conducting surveys for transportation projects. National Park Service guidance documents should be considered the authoritative sources, particularly the National Register Bulletins which provide technical information on identifying and evaluating landscapes for the National Register of Historic Places. For copies of publications, call the appropriate State Office of Historic Preservation or the National Park Service. NPS guidance on historic landscapes is available through the National Park Service’s Heritage Preservation Services (formerly Preservation Assistance Division), (202) 343-9597, [www2.cr.nps.gov/], the Historic Landscape Initiative, [www2.cr.nps.gov/hli/], and the Sales Publications Catalog at [www2.cr.nps.gov/hli/hlicat].

Ahern, Katherine. Leslie H. Blythe and Robert R. Page, eds. Cultural Landscape Bibliography: An Annotated Bibliography on Resources in the National Park System. Washington, DC: National Park Service, 1992. (Descriptions of reports on specific parks, rural historic districts, biotic cultural resources, earthworks management, and proceedings of historic mining conference.)

Alanen, Arnold R. "Grounded in Reality: The Importance of Vernacular Landscapes," Courier, Vol. 34 (August 1989), 10-13.

Birnbaum, Charles A. Protecting Cultural Landscapes: Planning, Treatment and Management of Historic Landscapes. Preservation Brief 36. Washington, DC: National Park Service, 1994. (An excellent account of the full range of landscape planning activities.)

Birnbaum, Charles A. and Lisa E. Crowder, eds. Pioneers of American Landscape Design: An Annotated Bibliography. Washington, DC: National Park Service, 1993. (Includes 61 biographical profiles and information on archival collections.)

Birnbaum, Charles A. and Julie K. Fix, eds. Pioneers of American Landscape Design II: An Annotated Bibliography. Washington, DC: National Park Service, 1995. (Includes 50 biographical profiles and information on archival collections.)

Birnbaum, Charles A. and Christine Capella Peters, eds. The Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties, with Guidelines for the Treatment of Cultural Landscapes. Washington, DC: National Park Service, 1996. (Authoritative source for landscape treatment. Previous draft by Lauren Meier, 1992.)

Bradley, Denise and Michael Corbett. Rural Historic Landscape Report for Reclamation District 1000 for the Cultural Resources Inventory and Evaluations for the American River Watershed Investigation, Sacramento and Sutter Counties, California. Dames & Moore. January 1996.

Buggey, Susan, ed. Special Issue: Conserving Historic Landscapes. APT Bulletin, Association for Preservation Technology International, Vol. XXIV, No. 3-4 (1992).

Cutler, Phoebe. The Public Landscape of the New Deal. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1985.

Favretti, Rudy. Landscapes and Gardens for Historic Buildings. Nashville: American Association for State and Local History, 1991.

Francaviglia, Richard V. Hard Places. Reading the Landscapes of America’s Historic Mining Districts. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1992.

Groth, Paul, ed. Vision, Culture and Landscape. Berkeley: University of California, 1990. (Interpreting and reading diverse types of landscapes.)

Gubbels, Jac L. American Highways and Roadsides. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1938.

Hayden, Dolores. The Power of Place: Urban Landscapes as Public History. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1995. (Perspectives on gender, race, and ethnicity in Los Angeles; connections between people and communities in urban landscapes.)

Historic Preservation Forum: Focus on Landscape Preservation. National Trust for Historic Preservation. Vol. 7, No. 3 (May/June 1993). (Articles include: Landscape Preservation Today; Historian and the Landscape; Inventory and Analysis of Historic Landscapes; Treatment of Historic Landscapes; Managing the Past for the Future; and Landscape Initiatives of the National Trust.)

Historic Transportation Corridors. CRM thematic issue. National Park Service, Vol. 16, No. 11 (1993).

Interpretation of Cultural Landscapes. CRM thematic issue. National Park Service, Vol. 17, No. 8 (1994).

Jackson, John Brinckerhoff. Discovering the Vernacular Landscape. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1984. (Includes theoretical and historical perspective on roads.)

Jakle, John A. The Visual Elements of Landscape. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1987.

Keller, Genevieve P. "The Inventory and Analysis of Historic Landscapes," Historic Preservation Forum: Focus on Landscape Preservation. Vol. 7, No. 3 (May/June 1993), 26-35. (Discusses what to include in an inventory and how to do it.)

Keller, J. Timothy and Genevieve Keller. How to Evaluate and Nominate Designed Historic Landscapes. National Register Bulletin 18. Washington, DC: National Park Service, 1987. (Basic source for evaluating parks, gardens, parkways, and other designed landscapes.)

Kelso, Gerald K. "Interdisciplinary Research in Historic Landscape Management," CRM, Supplement to Thematic Issue on the Preservation of Cultural Landscapes, Vol. 14, No. 6 (1991), 1-11. (Focus on pollen studies in conducting archeological investigations of historic vegetation.)

Lortie, Frank. "What’s Historic about Historic Landscape?" California History Action (Winter 1995), 4-5. (Thoughtful article responding to issues raised at August 1994 NPS conference on landscapes, stressing need for disciplined historical inquiry.)

McClelland, Linda Flint. Presenting Nature: The Historic Landscape Design of the National Park Service, 1916-1942. Washington, DC: National Park Service, 1993. (Explains how park facilities were designed to "present nature" to visitors; substantial focus on western parks, including state and local parks.)

McClelland, Linda, J. Timothy Keller, Genevieve Keller, and Robert Melnick. Guidelines for Evaluating and Documenting Rural Historic Landscapes. National Register Bulletin 30. Washington, DC: National Park Service, 1990. (Basic source for evaluating vernacular landscapes.)

Making Educated Decisions: A Landscape Preservation Bibliography. Washington, DC: National Park Service, 1994.

Mastran, Shelley. "The Protection of America’s Scenic Byways," Information. National Trust for Historic Preservation Information Series No. 68 (1992). (Includes examples, techniques, federal and state programs, and discussion of corridor management plans.)

Meier, Lauren. Guidelines for the Treatment of Historic Landscapes. Draft. Washington, DC: National Park Service, 1992. (See final draft of these guidelines by Charles Birnbaum, above.)

-----, ed. Historic Landscape Directory: A Source Book of Agencies, Organizations, and Institutions Providing Information on Historic Landscape Preservation. Washington, DC: National Park Service, 1991. (Includes research sources, state-by-state listing of organizations, and information sources on historic plant materials.)

----- and Betsy Chittenden, comps. Preserving Historic Landscapes: An Annotated Bibliography. National Park Service Reading List. Washington, DC: National Park Service, 1990. (An extensive bibliography focused primarily on landscape architecture. Sources are arranged very usefully by subject, such as Landscape Archeology, Ethnic and Settlement Landscapes, and Outbuildings.)

Meinig, D. W., ed., et al. The Interpretation of Ordinary Landscapes: Geographical Essays. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979.

Melnick, Robert Z. Cultural Landscapes: Rural Historic Districts in the National Park System. Washington, DC: 1984. (The original basic source on rural historic landscapes.)

-----. "Rural Surveys: Tools and Techniques," Public Historian, Vol. 9, No. 1 (Winter 1987).

Miller, Naomi F. and Kathryn Louise Gleason. The Archeology of Garden and Field. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1994. (Case studies and strategies for landscape archeology.)

Neal, Darwina. "Restoration of Historic Designed Landscapes," Courier, Vol. 34, No. 8 (August 1989), 26.

Newton, Norman T. Design on the Land. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1971. (Standard source on American landscape history)

Noble, Bruce J., Jr. and Robert Spude. Guidelines for Identifying, Evaluating, and Registering Historic Mining Properties. National Register Bulletin 42. Washington, DC: National Park Service, 1992.

O’Donnell, Eleanor. Researching a Historic Property. National Register Bulletin 39. Washington, DC: National Park Service, 1991

O’Donnell, Patricia M. "The Treatment of Historic Landscapes," Historic Preservation Forum (May/June 1993), 36-45.

Parker, Patricia and Thomas King. Guidelines for Evaluating and Documenting Traditional Cultural Properties. National Register Bulletin 38. Washington, DC: National Park Service, 1990.

Potter, Elisabeth Walton and Beth M. Boland. Guidelines for Evaluating and Registering Cemeteries and Burial Places. National Register Bulletin 41. Washington, DC: National Park Service, 1992.

Preservation of Cultural Landscapes. CRM thematic issue. National Park Service, Vol. 14, No. 6 (1991).

Reilly, Marilou. "Historic Transportation Corridors: A New and Dynamic Element of Historic Preservation," CRM. National Park Service, Vol. 16, No. 11 (1993). (Papers from the Natchitoches international conference.)

Snow, William Brewster, ed. The Highway and the Landscape. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1959.

Stokes, Samuel N., Elizabeth Watson, Genevieve P. Keller, J. Timothy Keller. Saving America’s Countryside: A Guide to Rural Conservation. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989.

Strangstad, Lynette. "Preservation of Historic Burial Grounds," Information. National Trust for Historic Preservation Information Series No. 76 (1993). (Includes historical and archeological significance, a focus on African-American cemeteries, and case studies.)

Tishler, William, ed. American Landscape Architecture, Designers and Places. Washington, DC: The Preservation Press, 1989.

Traditional Cultural Properties. CRM special issue. National Park Service, Vol. 16 (1993).

US Department of the Interior, National Park Service. America’s Preservation Legacy. Brochure, 1992.

-----. Guidelines for Identifying, Evaluating and Registering America’s Historic Battlefields. National Register Bulletin 40.

-----. How to Apply the National Register Criteria for Evaluation. National Register Bulletin 15.

-----. Pioneers of American Landscape Design: An Annotated Bibliography. 1993.

Webb, Melody. "Cultural Landscapes in the National Park Service," Public Historian, Vol. 9 (Spring 1987), 77-89.


PUBLISHED CASE STUDIES

Contact the National Park Service to request information on additional case studies on specific topics.

Barthold, Elizabeth. "Documenting Historic Parks in the Nation’s Capital," CRM, Thematic Issue on the Preservation of Cultural Landscapes, Vol. 14, No. 6 (1991), 7-9.

Case Studies in Landscape Preservation. National Park Service, Preservation Assistance Division in cooperation with the Alliance for Landscape Preservation. Washington, DC: 1995.

Clous, Richard. "Historic Residential Landscapes in Georgia: The Georgia Living Places Project," CRM, Thematic Issue on the Preservation of Cultural Landscapes, Vol. 14, No. 6 (1991), 4-6, 14.

Cowley, Jill. "Canyon De Chelley--An Ethnographic Landscape," CRM, Thematic Issue on the Preservation of Cultural Landscapes, Vol. 14, No. 6 (1991), 10-11.

Feierabend, Carey. "The Presidio of San Francisco’s Cultural Landscape," CRM, Thematic Issue on the Preservation of Cultural Landscapes, Vol. 14, No. 6 (1991), 12-14.

Gilbert, Cathy. "NPS Pacific Northwest Region Cultural Landscape Inventory," CRM, Thematic Issue on the Preservation of Cultural Landscapes, Vol. 14, No. 6 (1991), 15-17.

Humphrey, David T. "The Evolving Landscape at Cuyahoga National Recreation Area," CRM, Thematic Issue on the Preservation of Cultural Landscapes, Vol. 14, No. 6 (1991), 18-19.

FORTHCOMING WORK

O’Donnell, Patricia M. Cultural Landscape Preservation Case Studies. National Park Service/Alliance for Landscape Preservation.

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