CHAPTER 3

AFFECTED ENVIRONMENT

This chapter describes the physical and socioeconomic setting of the proposed SFOBB East Span Seismic Safety Project (East Span Project) and provides the baseline used to evaluate potential impacts. The project area encompasses land between the western portal of the Yerba Buena tunnel and the SFOBB Toll Plaza on the Oakland Touchdown area (Figure 2-2 in Appendix A). The project area includes additional land on Yerba Buena Island (YBI) to allow for construction activity related to the project. In the Bay, the project area includes sufficient area to accommodate all of the proposed alignments and allow for construction-related activity as described in Chapter 2.

In some locations, an area beyond the physical limits of the project, as described above is considered if there is the potential for environmental impacts to occur beyond those limits. Project area boundaries are described within individual sections of this chapter where they differ from the boundaries shown on Figure 2-2 in Appendix A. Where the term "Region" is used in this chapter, it refers to the entire nine-county Bay Area.

The following technical studies and analyses containing detailed information were conducted for the SFOBB East Span Project.

"Addendum Archaeological Survey Report ­ Maritime Archaeology," March 2000
"Addendum Finding of Adverse Effect," October 1999
"Air Quality Study Memorandum," March 1998
"Bicycle and Pedestrian Study Report," September 1998
"Biological Assessment," June 1999
"Biological Assessment (Retrofit Existing Bridge Alternative)," November 1996
"Community Impact Assessment," September 1998
"Conceptual Mitigation Plan for Special Aquatic Sites," November 2000
"Consideration of Proposed Mitigation Measures for Project Effects on Historic Buildings and Structures," September 1999
"CCSF S-1 Modified Alignment and the Impacts to the EBMUD Sewer Outfall," November 1999
"Dredged Material Management Plan," June 1999
"Final Relocation Impact Report," April 2001
"Finding of Adverse Effect: Buildings and Structures," September 1998
"Finding of Effect for Archaeological Resources," July 1998
"Hazardous Wastes Assessment," September 1998
"Historic Architecture Survey Report," July 1998
"Historic Property Survey Report," April 1996
"Land Use Issues Associated with the SFOBB East Span Seismic Safety Project and the Naval Station Treasure Island Draft Reuse Plan," January 2000
"Location Hydraulic Study," September 1998
"Natural Environment Study," September 1998
"Noise and Vibration Study," September 1998
"Phase I Archaeological Survey Report ­ Maritime Archaeology," February 2000
"Positive Archaeological Survey Report," June 1998
"Retrofit vs. Replacement," April 2000
"Sediment Sampling and Analysis Report," June 2000
"Supplemental Draft Section 4(f) Evaluation," June 1999
"Traffic Circulation, Access and Parking Assessment," September 1998
"Treatment BMP Feasibility Study," December 2000
"Visual Impact Assessment," September 1998

These studies are available for review at the locations listed in the Preface of this document. (Note: Because the Positive Archaeological Survey Report and Finding of Effect for Archaeological Resources contain confidential information about the locations of archaeological resources, they are not available for review.)

3.1 COMMUNITY SETTING

This section describes existing land uses in the project area and identifies and analyzes existing and projected social conditions in the project area so that the economic, demographic, service, and fiscal impacts of the East Span Project can be evaluated.

Socioeconomic and demographic data are presented for the U.S. Census Tracts that are within the project area and that could be potentially affected by the East Span Project. Census Tract 4017 in Oakland includes the Oakland Touchdown area; Census Tract 179.02 includes Yerba Buena Island (YBI) and Treasure Island (TI). To provide context for census tract data, they are compared to data for the cities of Oakland and San Francisco (YBI and TI are part of the City of San Francisco). Because the SFOBB is a regional facility, some demographic data are also presented at the county level. Figure 3-1 in Appendix A shows the Oakland and YBI/TI census tract locations in the project area.

3.1.1 Existing Land Uses in the Project Vicinity

Yerba Buena Island and Treasure Island

YBI and TI are primarily federally owned properties. YBI is currently under jurisdiction of and owned by the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) and the Department of the Navy (Navy) with the exception of the land for right-of-way for all alternatives for the project under consideration, which was recently transferred to Caltrans (see discussion below under Caltrans for more details). These federal agencies must approve any activity on their property. In general, the Navy owns the property north of the existing East Span, as well as the ramps to and from the bridge; the USCG owns most of the property south of the bridge. See Figure 3-2 in Appendix A for the jurisdictional boundary. The Navy also owns TI and the causeway connecting YBI and TI.

YBI is a 59-hectare (147-acre) natural island. The USCG facility consists of 17 hectares (41 acres) and is located south of the existing SFOBB East Span. The area on YBI owned by the Navy is 34 hectares (86 acres). The existing East Span connects to the West Span at the YBI tunnel, which runs through the middle of the island. The Caltrans permanent right-of-way is 8 hectares (20 acres).

TI is a 163-hectare (403-acre) man-made island created by placement of fill in the Bay. A man-made causeway located northwest of YBI connects the two islands.

U.S. Navy. The Naval Station Treasure Island (NSTI), which comprises the Navy property on YBI and TI, encompasses 197 hectares (489 acres) of land. The NSTI was operational from the 1940s until 1997, when it was decommissioned. Within Navy jurisdiction on YBI, there are about 10 buildings previously used by the military primarily for storage, communications, fire safety, and administrative purposes. In addition, there are 105 housing units, 10 of which are large single-family residences originally built for officers; the remainder are 2, 3, and 4-unit buildings, generally single-story. Of these 105 units, about 95 housing units, located on the western and central parts of YBI, are currently occupied as market-rate civilian housing.

Land uses on the eastern side of YBI within the vicinity of the existing East Span include Quarters 1-7, shown on Figure 3-2 in Appendix A. Quarters 1-7 were built in the early 1900s as officers’ quarters and comprise a Historic District eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places (refer to Section 3.10 for a discussion of Historic and Cultural Resources). Quarters 1-7 are currently undergoing renovation and will eventually be leased out by the City and County of San Francisco (CCSF) as locations for events and meetings. Two other buildings (Buildings 213 and 262) are located on the eastern side of YBI. Building 213 is currently vacant; however, a fire truck owned by the CCSF is stored inside. Building 262, known as the Torpedo Building, was constructed in 1891 and is eligible for the National Register of Historic Places (see Section 3.10 — Historic and Cultural Resources). This building is vacant.

The 163 hectares (403 acres) at TI support 150 military buildings and 904 housing units. The military buildings served a broad range of functions, including medical/dental offices, a fire training facility, prison, administrative offices, a conference center, restaurants, and barracks, as well as storage for equipment and other miscellaneous items for a total of 0.23 million square meters (2.5 million square feet).

The Navy is seeking to dispose of its property on YBI and TI under the Defense Base Closure and Realignment Act of 1990, as amended. Through this process, jurisdictional authority will pass from Navy control, and the property within the former naval station will be available for reuse.

The laws and regulations guiding the base closure process require the Navy to consult with the Local Redevelopment Authority (LRA) and consider the LRA’s plans as it decides how to dispose of NSTI. The CCSF is the LRA recognized by the Department of Defense as the agency responsible for planning the redevelopment of former NSTI. Accordingly, the Navy is working with the CCSF to coordinate base closure activities. A discussion of redevelopment plans for YBI is included in Section 3.1.2 below.

Notwithstanding the CCSF’s status as the LRA in the base closure process, the Navy has not yet completed its analysis for the disposal and reuse of NSTI pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Although the Navy must consider the CCSF’s plans for NSTI, the Navy has discretion to evaluate and decide among competing requests for the excess land. Pursuant to NEPA, the Navy must consider all reasonable disposal alternatives, including a "no action" alternative; the Navy has not disclosed what other alternatives are being considered; these will be publicly disclosed when the Navy circulates its Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the disposal and reuse of NSTI.

On October 25, 2000 and pursuant to 23 USC 107(d), the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) executed a Federal Land Transfer of some land on YBI formerly owned by the United States. The right-of-way for the Interstate System was required over lands owned by the Department of the Navy. FHWA transferred land to Caltrans to give the state adequate right-of-way and control of access for construction of any of the alternatives for the East Span Project. There will be no physical changes until the Record of Decision (ROD) is approved for the East Span Project and construction begins. This Federal Land Transfer does not limit the evaluation of alternatives for the East Span Project, since the boundaries of the land transferred can accommodate any of the project alternatives under consideration. Any rights-of-way not required for the East Span Project will revert to the United States after project completion. The deed for conveyance of property was recorded on October 26, 2000, with the CCSF County Records Office.

U.S. Coast Guard. The remaining property on YBI is owned by the USCG. It encompasses about 17 hectares (41 acres). The focus of USCG operations is a narrow half-mile strip of land at the eastern edge of the island. From this location, the USCG performs a variety of functions, including 24-hour search and rescue, law enforcement, and buoy repair and maintenance. Vessel traffic service is performed from a large communications tower at the top of YBI. Because of its search and rescue and law enforcement responsibilities, it is essential that the USCG be located at a waterfront site where boats can quickly accelerate to full speed. It is also very important for the unit to be centrally located to maintain adequate response times to emergency calls in the central and southern Bay.

Residential facilities are provided for about 78 USCG personnel or USCG dependents who live on-site. Accommodations are also provided in the barracks for an additional 30 on-duty and temporary personnel. The Bachelor Enlisted Quarters (BEQ) encompasses 54 rooms with approximately 68 residents in a group of four buildings. There are also five single-family homes on the island for the families of officers housing approximately ten residents.

USCG administrative facilities on YBI consist of the following buildings (see Figure 3-2 in Appendix A):

Industrial buildings are located at the southern end of the island. Maintenance, repair, and painting of buoys for the entire Bay Area are done at these industrial buildings. Recreational facilities on the island consist of outdoor tennis, basketball, and volleyball courts and a barbecue pit located next to Building 75.

Caltrans. As noted in this section under "U.S. Navy," the FHWA has transferred land, including fee ownership and construction easments, to Caltrans. The area now owned by Caltrans starts approximately 152 meters (500 feet) west of the western tunnel portal and runs through the tunnel and ends at about 256 meters (840 feet) east of the eastern tunnel portal for a total length of approximately 571 meters (1,875 feet). The width of the Caltrans property varies on the north side up to 44 meters (145 feet) from the centerline of the existing bridge and up to 38 meters (125 feet) from centerline on the south side.

Oakland Touchdown Area

The SFOBB touches down in the City of Oakland on a spit of land north of Port of Oakland facilities and west of the I-80/I-880/I-580 Interchange (distribution structure). The land in this area is owned by a number of public agencies, including the City of Oakland, the Port of Oakland, the State of California, and the U.S. Army. (Refer to Figure 3-3 in Appendix A.) The State of California has a permanent easement for the right-of-way where the current I-80/SFOBB alignment is located. This property extends approximately 50 meters (164 feet) from the outer boundaries of the westbound and eastbound I-80 alignments and includes a median area between the two directions of travel.

The SFOBB Toll Plaza is located approximately 200 meters (655 feet) west of the distribution structure and extends across the westbound I-80 lanes. SFOBB Toll Plaza administrative facilities, maintenance buildings, a tow-truck operations base, and the SFOBB Traffic Operations Center are located south of the SFOBB Toll Plaza within the median area. SFOBB Toll Plaza workers also park in this area.

A Caltrans maintenance road extends the length of the project area within the Oakland Touchdown area on the south side of I-80. The roadway continues under the SFOBB and provides access to the north side of the bridge. Burma Road is also located on the south side of the touchdown. It extends from Maritime Street to the west end of the touchdown and is roughly parallel to the maintenance road. Burma Road was constructed by the U.S. Army and is now used by the Port of Oakland under a lease agreement. This roadway is blocked to public vehicular access about 1.6 kilometers (1 mile) from the west end of the touchdown. At this point, traffic is diverted onto the Caltrans maintenance road.

Various Caltrans storage, repair, and maintenance facilities are located between the Caltrans maintenance road and Burma Road, at the west end of the Oakland Touchdown area. The Caltrans Bay Bridge Substation and the Key Pier Substation, which were used during the era when the bridge carried trains, are also located in this area and are currently used for Caltrans maintenance activities. An East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD) final dechlorination treatment station and outfall are also located in this area. The sewer outfall is 2.4 meters (8 feet) in diameter, 5 kilometers (3.1 miles) long, and extends 1.6 kilometers (1 mile) into the Bay.

A storage area for Caltrans construction materials and maintenance activities extends for about 1.6 kilometers (1 mile) between the Caltrans maintenance road and Burma Road. This property is owned by the City of Oakland. A billboard owned by the Port of Oakland is also located within this area. It is designated for community non-profit organizations and Oakland Airport-related media.

Four additional Caltrans buildings are located south of the SFOBB Toll Plaza and the maintenance road. The buildings are used for storage, maintenance, and repair materials associated with general maintenance of the bridge.

South of the Oakland Touchdown Area. The Port of Oakland (Port) extends from the south side of the Oakland Touchdown area and continues south along the San Francisco Bay shoreline to the Inner Harbor between the cities of Oakland and Alameda. The Port is a highly developed area of industrial, maritime, transportation, and commercial uses. Its deep-water berths and container cranes are supported by a network of warehouses, roadways connecting to freeways, and intermodal railyards. The Port also operates numerous non-maritime-related activities along its 30 kilometers (19 miles) of shoreline, including commercial real estate, two airports, recreational parks, wildlife refuges, and industrial facilities.

The U.S. Army owns the property on the south side of the Oakland Touchdown area, including Burma Road. Army property extends from near the end of the touchdown eastward and includes land on the east side of Maritime Street. The Oakland Army Base Military Traffic Management Command Center operated from this property until the Oakland Army Base was decommissioned in September 1999. The Oakland Army Base Reuse Authority (OBRA) together with the U.S. Army, the City of Oakland, and the Port of Oakland, recently adopted the Oakland Army Base Reuse Plan through the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) process. The reuse plan is discussed in Section 3.1.2 — Developable Land and Development Trends. Within this property, the Port operates the Bay Bridge public terminal on the shoreline south of the SFOBB Toll Plaza. The terminal currently handles break bulk (non-containerized) cargo. The Port plans to operate the terminal in the near term.

A container freight storage area is located between Burma Road and the Caltrans maintenance road, south of the SFOBB Toll Plaza. AMNAV, a private shipping company, is located on the south side of Burma Road and uses Pier 8 (adjacent to the Bay Bridge public terminal) for tug services. Burma Road continues eastward where it intersects with West Grand Avenue. West Grand Avenue provides access to and from I-80. A large shipping container storage area is located on property west of this intersection.

North Side of the Oakland Touchdown Area. The strip of land on the north side of the East Span is designated as a Resource Conservation Area in the City of Oakland General Plan. Caltrans has a permanent easement on the first 50 meters (164 feet) of land to the north of the bridge; beyond this boundary, the land is owned by the Port of Oakland. The Resource Conservation Area continues nearly 3.2 kilometers (2 miles) eastward from the touchdown before turning northward towards Emeryville.

The first 1.6-kilometer (1-mile) stretch of shoreline in Emeryville, known as the Emeryville Crescent, provides sensitive habitat for a variety of wildlife and special status species. The project area for the East Span Seismic Safety Project ends at Radio Point Beach, roughly 1,000 meters (3,300 feet) from the western end of the touchdown and approximately 2.4 kilometers (1.5 miles) from the Emeryville Crescent (see Figure 2-2 in Appendix A).

3.1.2 Developable Land and Development Trends

Yerba Buena Island and Treasure Island

Yerba Buena Island. In July 1996, a Draft Naval Station Treasure Island Reuse Plan (1996 Draft Reuse Plan) was approved by the Office of Military Base Conversion, the CCSF, and the San Francisco Redevelopment Agency in anticipation of the closure of NSTI.

The conceptual land use plan for development on the eastern side of YBI (shown on Figure 4-1 in Appendix A) calls for a mixture of residential and visitor-serving uses. As noted in the "Implementation Strategy" section of the 1996 Draft Reuse Plan, proposed residential uses would include construction of 13 artisan cottages and 75 live/work units in 4 buildings with a total area of 6,968 square meters (75,000 square feet). Visitor-serving uses would include a 5,574-square-meter (60,000-square-foot) conference center that would be associated with Quarters 1-7. A height limit of 12.2 meters (40 feet) for eastern YBI is shown in the Plan. The 1996 Draft Reuse Plan also proposed reuse of Building 262 for uses such as art studios, a community center, additional live/work space, or a restaurant.

For western YBI, the 1996 Draft Reuse Plan calls for immediate utilization of the existing housing stock for market rate and homeless housing programs. At this time, however, the existing units on YBI are utilized as market-rate housing only. The plan envisions phased demolition and redevelopment of the housing stock on western YBI to develop higher density residential units (90 units) with either a hotel (150 rooms), a condominium development (100 units), or a lower density single-family development of 65 lots.

The 1996 Draft Reuse Plan envisions that development of TI/YBI would occur in five phases. Each phase would build on the previous phase to generate the revenue necessary to make needed infrastructure improvements which, in turn, would allow for more intensive development in subsequent phases. The phased implementation process is projected to extend over a period of 35 years. Development on YBI is envisioned to occur in the first three phases of plan implementation spanning a 15-year period. Development on eastern YBI, near the East Span, including the conference center, artisan cottages, and live/work units, is included in Phase 3 and is scheduled to begin in 2007.

The proposed redevelopment of YBI set forth in the 1996 Draft Reuse Plan is subject to review and approval by BCDC under federal and state law to determine whether the proposed transfer of land to the CCSF and the proposed redevelopment of YBI are consistent with the Park Priority Use designation for YBI in the BCDC Bay Plan. The proposed uses in the Draft Reuse Plan would require amending the existing San Francisco Bay Plan to delete the park priority use designation at YBI. The San Francisco Bay Plan states, "If and when not needed by the Navy and Coast Guard, redevelop released areas for recreational use."

Development intended for the southeastern half of YBI, owned by the USCG, will improve base facilities and amenities, including new residential and light industrial uses. USCG does not currently have a master plan in place.

Treasure Island. Due to present underutilization and revenue-producing potential, TI is expected to be subject to intense development over the next 35 years. The CCSF and the Navy are currently preparing an EIR/EIS for TI and YBI to evaluate environmental impacts of proposed development on the property proposed for conveyance to the CCSF from the Navy. A market assessment in the 1996 Draft Reuse Plan concluded that "publicly oriented recreation and entertainment attractions" have been identified as particularly well-suited for the site.

In addition to these types of uses, the 1996 Draft Reuse Plan also considers land uses that would accommodate community facilities, major utilities, film production studios, and opportunities for non-profit institutions. New housing and shoreline open space on TI are also presented as potential uses.

According to the 1996 Draft Reuse Plan, expansion of the Treasure Island Marina was originally scheduled for Phase 2 development. Since the plan was written, the marina project has been accelerated. The conceptual marina development plan was approved by the Treasure Island Development Authority. Approval of the final marina development plan will require certification of an environmental document in compliance with the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) and NEPA.

Construction of the Treasure Island Marina is scheduled to begin in mid- to late-2001, after approval of the final plan, environmental document, and BCDC permit.

Oakland Touchdown Area

The Port of Oakland, Caltrans, the East Bay Regional Park District (EBRPD), and EBMUD all have plans for development or maintenance of existing facilities on the Oakland Touchdown area. One of these plans is the creation of a public park at the western end of the Oakland Touchdown area. Planning for the park is being led by EBRPD (see discussion below under East Bay Regional Park District).

Caltrans will continue to use a portion of the Oakland Touchdown area for maintenance access to the bridge approach and the SFOBB. In addition, Caltrans is planning a separate project to reconstruct the toll plaza/administration area located just east of the Oakland Touchdown area.

Port of Oakland. The Port and the City of Oakland are currently seeking conveyance of the Oakland Army Base (OARB) located just south of the current eastern terminus of the SFOBB for economic and community development purposes. Under the existing plan, the 1998 Draft Final Reuse Plan for the Oakland Army Base (July 27, 1998) (Draft Final Reuse Plan), the Port of Oakland would develop a 194-acre Maritime District, including the OARB properties located west of Maritime Street and an expanded Knight Rail Yard. The City of Oakland would develop most of the remaining OARB area for non-maritime uses, with a primary focus on industrial, business, technology, and workforce training uses.

The OBRA is considering a proposal to revise its Draft Final Reuse Plan. Under the proposed revised Draft Final Reuse Plan, the Port of Oakland would develop lands east of Maritime Street (located southeast of the Oakland Touchdown area outside of the project area limits) for maritime uses. The City of Oakland would develop the areas south of Burma Road as non-maritime uses (see Figure 3-3 in Appendix A). The reuse plan for the OARB, including the proposed revised plan, must be approved by OBRA, subject to environmental review.

The proposed revised Draft Final Reuse Plan for the Oakland Touchdown area, if approved by OBRA, would include conveyance of 4.9 hectares (12 acres) to the EBRPD for development of the Gateway Park at the western end of the Oakland Touchdown area. In the first iteration of the plan, this park was also included. FHWA has determined that the land to be conveyed is a protected Section 4(f) resource.

The San Francisco Bay Area Seaport Plan (Seaport Plan) identifies long-range plans by the Port of Oakland (Port) to expand its operations. The plan, originally approved by BCDC in 1982 and last amended in 1997, allows for expansion of Port facilities to 2017. Before Port expansion can proceed using Bay fill, marine terminal projects must meet the criteria specified in Section 66605(c) and (d) of the McAteer-Petris Act, administered by BCDC. Expansion plans are designed to meet the projected 2020 cargo volumes estimated in the Seaport Plan. Development of the Port’s Joint Intermodal Terminal (JIT), located outside the East Span Project area limits, is currently under way.

On January 4, 2001, BCDC voted to amend the San Francisco Bay Plan and Seaport Plan by the "Port Priority Use" area designation from the Bay Bridge Site, Pier 7, and Bay Bridge Terminal (see Figure 3-3 in Appendix A). Deleting the "Port Priority Use" designation from these areas will allow the City of Oakland to implement a development plan for the area to accommodate non-maritime land uses. The deletion also eliminates the inconsistency between the BCDC’s "Port Priority Use" designation and OBRA's designation of the land as a future park.

Bay Conservation and Development Commission (BCDC) Permit 11-93. As part of the I-880/Cypress Freeway Replacement Project, Caltrans is required by BCDC to provide and maintain a public access bicycle/pedestrian pathway system connecting the cities of Emeryville and Oakland between Shellmound Street and Nelson Mandela Parkway, through the distribution structure for I-80 to the Oakland Touchdown area. Caltrans is also required to provide two scenic overlooks, a 465-square-meter (5,000-square-foot) outlook on the north side of the Oakland Touchdown area and a 232-square-meter (2,500-square-foot) lookout area on the south side of the area. Both overlook areas would include public amenities such as restrooms, parking, benches, a fish cleaning facility, trash cans, and native landscaping. The EBRPD has plans to develop a much larger public park in the same area (see below). If the locations of all or portions of the conceptual overlooks and bikeway alignments prove infeasible due to replacement of the existing bridge, the permit conditions allow Caltrans to pay a fee in lieu of constructing the improvements, subject to BCDC approval.

East Bay Regional Park District (EBRPD). The EBRPD Advanced Planning Division is evaluating lands at the Oakland Touchdown area for potential acquisition and stewardship to develop an approximately 5.9-hectare (14.7-acre) public park to the south of the existing bridge and approach. Subsequent to publication of the East Span Project DEIS in 1998, the EBRPD was designated by OBRA as the lead agency in developing the proposed Gateway Park at the western end of the Oakland Touchdown area. EBRPD’s Advanced Planning Division is coordinating park planning among the City of Oakland, the National Park Service, BCDC, and the Port of Oakland.

3.1.3 Adopted Goals and Policies

Land Use Policies

In addition to Caltrans, the public agencies with jurisdiction over or interest in land use in the project area are the Navy, the CCSF, City of Oakland, Port of Oakland, USCG, the EBRPD, BCDC, and EBMUD. This section reviews their existing policies and planning documents and identifies the guiding principles that relate to the proposed project.

U.S. Navy. The Navy is in the process of transferring the property known as NSTI as part of the BRAC process. For the purposes of the East Span FEIS, Caltrans assumed that the CCSF is the intended recipient of YBI. This assumption was based on the 1996 Draft Reuse Plan, the CCSF's role as Local Reuse Authority, and the currently in-force Base Caretaker Agreement between the Navy and CCSF. The transfer of property will be completed over the next few years.

The City and County of San Francisco/Treasure Island Development Authority. In 1997, the California Legislature passed AB699, the Treasure Island Conversion Act, vesting the Treasure Island Development Authority (TIDA) with full redevelopment authority for NSTI. In April 1997, the CCSF Board of Supervisors adopted Resolution 380-97 establishing TIDA as a nonprofit planning benefit corporation to promote the redevelopment of TI/YBI. The CCSF is projected to acquire ownership of TI and portions of YBI in the year 2003. A caretaker agreement between the CCSF and the Navy is currently in place. The caretaker agreement defines levels of maintenance on TI during the transfer and conveyance process and defines funding and service responsibilities. The 1996 Draft Reuse Plan serves as the guide for future activities on TI and CCSF-owned portions of YBI.

The following is a summary of land use policies from the 1996 Draft Reuse Plan which are relevant to development on YBI:

The City of Oakland. Envision Oakland is the title of the Land Use and Transportation Element of the Oakland General Plan that was adopted March 24, 1998. This document contains policies and actions for implementation of the community’s vision for Oakland. Envision Oakland includes land use designations for the Oakland Touchdown area and adjacent areas.

Transportation policies found in Envision Oakland reflect the City’s priority to maintain exceptional access to and through Oakland for the wide variety of transportation modes that have historically existed within the city.

The Port of Oakland. As noted in Section 3.1.2 — Developable Land and Development Trends, the Port of Oakland and the City of Oakland have proposed a revision of OBRA’s Draft Final Reuse Plan. The proposed revised Draft Final Reuse Plan would include policies to guide Port of Oakland development outside the project area and, if approved, would also convey land to the City of Oakland for economic development purposes.

U.S. Coast Guard. Although the USCG regularly prepares master plans for its various facilities, the USCG facility on YBI does not currently have a master plan in place. Finalization of a draft master plan, prepared in September 1995, is pending the results of the TI BRAC process and the final design for the East Span Project. Once the final design for the East Span Project has been chosen, the amount of land required from the USCG property can be determined. The completed master plan for the USCG properties will be based upon land remaining available for development.

East Bay Regional Park District. The EBRPD Master Plan (December 17, 1996) does not discuss specific areas within the East Bay. Instead, it presents the policies and procedures to be used for acquisition and stewardship of any lands to be placed under EBRPD management. As noted in Section 3.1.2 — Developable Land and Development Trends, the lands at the west end of the Oakland Touchdown area are currently being evaluated by the EBRPD Advanced Planning Division for potential acquisition and stewardship. The EBRPD has gone on record with BCDC stating its intention to develop a park (Gateway Park) on the Oakland Touchdown area.

The San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission. The BCDC is a state agency and was created by the McAteer-Petris Act to regulate development in and around San Francisco Bay. After its creation, BCDC was designated as the Federal Coastal Zone Management Agency for San Francisco Bay in accordance with the Federal Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA). The purpose of the CZMA is similar to that of the McAteer-Petris Act, to regulate development in coastal areas and to protect their unique resources. Under the McAteer-Petris Act, BCDC has jurisdiction over the entire Bay and a shoreline band 30 meters (100 feet) shoreward of the mean high tide line.

The McAteer-Petris Act contains findings and declarations that recognize the rapid development around the Bay and that establish the framework for developing and implementing the San Francisco Bay Plan. The McAteer-Petris Act addresses the need to allow for water-oriented land use while protecting the Bay from unnecessary filling and maximizing public access. Section 66602 states that "the San Francisco Bay Plan should make provision for adequate and suitable locations for certain water-oriented land uses along the Bay shoreline that are essential to the public welfare of the Bay Area, thereby minimizing the necessity for future Bay fill to create new sites for these uses. Maximum feasible public access should also be provided."

The McAteer-Petris Act provides additional guidelines to regulate fill within the Bay. The guidelines include the following recommendations:

As part of its statutory mandate under the McAteer-Petris Act, BCDC prepared the San Francisco Bay Plan as its master planning document for San Francisco Bay. The Plan, adopted in 1969, as amended, outlines policies to guide future uses of the Bay and shoreline. The Bay Plan includes maps that apply these policies to the present Bay and shoreline.

Note: On November 4, 1999, BCDC voted 15-0-0 "…to support a solid fill alternative (vs. pile-supported fill) as most appropriate for the portion of the proposed East Span replacement structure where it reaches the shoreline in Oakland." The vote was advisory and does not constitute granting of a permit.

The following Bay Plan policies are applicable to the current project:

The San Francisco Bay Area Seaport Plan, prepared by BCDC and the Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC), constitutes the maritime element of MTC’s Regional Transportation Plan and is incorporated into BCDC’s San Francisco Bay Plan. The relationship of the Seaport Plan to the project was addressed in Section 3.1.2 — Developable Land and Development Trends under "Port of Oakland."

East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD). EBMUD owns, operates, and maintains facilities on the Oakland Touchdown within the project area. In letters of comment, EBMUD has expressed its concern with the potential environmental and financial problems resulting from construction of a southern alignment (see Section 3.1.6 — Community Services below).

3.1.4 Demographic Characteristics of the Project Area and Inclusive

Census Tracts

The project is located within census tracts 179.02 which includes TI and YBI, and 4017 which includes a portion of West Oakland (Figure 3-1 in Appendix A). Although the project is located within these census tracts, the project area limits include YBI and the Oakland Touchdown area (Figure 2-2 in Appendix A) and do not contain any large populations or cohesive communities.

Demographic information for the two census tracts within the project study area is presented below. Each subsection includes a description of the demographic characteristics for the project area limits and the larger census tract.

The 1990 Census information does not reflect the current demographic profile of YBI/TI, due to the closure of Naval Station Treasure Island in September 1997. Consequently, the demographic profile is based on the TI project website, field surveys and interviews with Treasure Island Development Authority and Treasure Island Homeless Development Initiative staff. The 1990 Census is used for demographic information for the Oakland Touchdown area and adjoining census tract.

Detailed demographic information for the nine-county Bay area region can be found in the Community Impact Assessment technical report.

Household Characteristics

Project Area. On YBI, housing at the USCG facility consists of dormitory type housing (BEQ), and five single-family homes (occupied by officers). The total resident population at the facility is approximately 78 people.

On the portion of YBI under Navy ownership, the housing stock is managed by the Treasure Island Development Authority. The 95 multi-family housing units on YBI are leased at market rate to the general public.

There are no housing units within the project limits in the Oakland Touchdown area.

Outside the Project Area. All of the housing stock on TI consists of apartments, with the exception of the barracks which are dormitories. According to the Director of the Treasure Island Homeless Development Initiative, all of the available housing stock on TI is occupied by renters. The current resident population on TI is estimated to be 2,700. Of the 116 units currently leased as below-market rate housing, 66 units are occupied by families of 4 or more people and the remaining 50 are single-occupancy. An additional 96 units of below-market rate family housing is undergoing renovation and will be available soon.

According to the Treasure Island Project web pages, as of January 2000, 300 market rate units were rented on TI. Occupants include City of San Francisco employees (including teachers, firefighters, police officers) and college students.

The housing stock in Census Tract 4017, which includes the Oakland Touchdown area, was 62 percent renter-occupied according to the 1990 Census. Average household size in this census tract was 2.8 people per household. The closest housing units are located approximately 2.4 kilometers (1.5 miles) away from the project limits.

Ethnic Mix and Age Distribution

Project Area. The ethnic mix of the residents on YBI is likely to be diverse and reflect that of the San Francisco Bay Area.

Outside the Project Area. Of the 116 below-market rate units occupied on TI, families with 2 or more children occupy 66 units. The remaining 50 units are single-occupancy. Of the occupied below-market rate units, 80 percent of the population is African American and the remaining 20 percent represent other ethnic groups.

According to the 1990 Census, the population of Census Tract 4017 in West Oakland is 63 percent African-American, 16 percent Asian and 7 percent Caucasian. Other ethnic groups made up the remaining 21 percent of the population.

Jobs and Employment

Project Area. The USCG employs 149 military and 1 civilian personnel. The characteristics of the current YBI labor force (outside the USCG facility) have not been documented; however, it is assumed that employment on the island is centered on rehabilitation and maintenance of the housing stock and historic structures.

The unemployment rate for the CCSF, overall, is 3 percent.

Outside the Project Area. The characteristics of the current TI labor force have not been documented. It is estimated that the daytime population on TI is 4,000. Employment centers on TI include the Job Corps Culinary Center, film studios, the Treasure Island Development Authority offices, a restaurant, convenience store, public services (police and fire) and the Treasure Island Elementary/Middle School.

Almost 30 percent of the labor force in Census Tract 4017 in West Oakland was employed in craft or laborer positions in 1990. The unemployment rate was 24 percent in 1990. The current unemployment rate for the City of Oakland, overall, is 5.5 percent.

According to a 1995 survey, there were approximately 488 businesses and employers in West Oakland (which includes areas outside of Census Tract 4017). At the time of the survey, the largest employer in the West Oakland community was the United States Postal Service. Another large employer, the Oakland Army Base, was closed in 1999 and is undergoing the base realignment and closure process to transfer the land to the City of Oakland and the Port of Oakland.

Income Levels

Project Area Limits. Income information for residents of YBI is not available until the 2000 Census is released.

Outside the Project Area. To qualify for the below-market rate housing on TI, residents must meet the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services income criteria, which in 2000 is $17,054 for a family of four. Income level information for other residents and military personnel is not available. None of the below-market rate housing is within the project area on YBI, so there is no identifiable low-income population on YBI.

In 1990, 21 percent of the residents of Census Tract 4017 were classified as living below the poverty level. Average household and per capita incomes were approximately 50 percent lower than Oakland as a whole. There are no households (low-income, minority, or otherwise) within the project area at the Oakland Touchdown area.

3.1.5 Fiscal Conditions

San Francisco

Primary sources of the CCSF General Fund are various taxes and state subventions. Approximately 30 percent of the 2000-2001 General Fund came from tax revenues; the remaining 70 percent is derived from federal and state grants, charges for specific purposes, and other revenues.

According to the Mayor’s 2000-2001 budget, 41 percent of the General Fund was for public works and transportation, 11 percent for public health, 17 percent for social services, 5 percent for culture and recreation, 7 percent for administration and finance, 6 percent for general obligations, and 13 percent for public protection.

The CCSF prepared the 1996 Draft Reuse Plan to address redevelopment of TI and portions of YBI currently and formerly owned by the Navy. Some of the land formerly owned by the Navy was recently transferred to Caltrans. The land was transferred to give the state adequate right-of-way and control of access for construction over lands for the East Span Project. A large investment in infrastructure is required to support redevelopment and, as noted in Section 3.1.2 — Developable Land and Development Trends, planned development of TI/YBI will be phased in order to generate revenue to pay for necessary infrastructure improvements.

Oakland

The city share of property tax which goes into the Oakland General Fund is less than 22 percent. The largest share of property tax collected in Oakland goes to Alameda County, special districts, and school districts. In the 1998-99 budget, 53 percent of the General Fund was allocated to police and fire activities, 8.3 percent went to public works and neighborhood development, and 8.6 percent was for culture and recreation.

3.1.6 Community Services

Utilities

Water Supply. The San Francisco Water Department (SFWD) supplies water to TI and YBI via steel pipes attached to the West Span. Backup water supply is provided by a line on the East Span that is owned by the Navy and is operated and maintained by the CCSF through a caretaker agreement. The pipeline conveys water from the EBMUD. Both sources of water are used for fire protection and domestic purposes. (Refer to Figures 3-30a and 3-30b in Appendix A for existing utilities on YBI and the Oakland Touchdown area.)

EBMUD is also responsible for the water supply at the Oakland end of the bridge. It has a supply pipe to the SFOBB Toll Plaza and Caltrans maintenance buildings, as well as pipelines that traverse the property of the former Oakland Army Base.

Sewer and Sewage Treatment. All wastewater generated on TI and YBI is treated at the sewage treatment plant located at the northeast corner of TI.

Sewage service and treatment in the East Bay are provided by EBMUD. The treatment plant is located just south of the distribution structure to the east of the SFOBB Toll Plaza. A major EBMUD sewer outfall line parallels the bridge approach to the south. Other EBMUD facilities include an effluent pump station near the SFOBB Toll Plaza, a dechlorination facility south of the eastbound lanes approximately 183 meters (600 feet) east of the existing bridge takeoff point, and an outfall drop structure adjacent to the shoreline where the outfall transitions to the water. (Refer to Figure 3-3 in Appendix A.)

Storm Drains. At the Oakland Touchdown, the storm drain system consists of pipes and various outfalls along the perimeter of the spit, which discharge directly into San Francisco Bay. The storm drain system on TI/YBI consists of pipes and various outfalls along the perimeter of TI and YBI, which discharge directly into San Francisco Bay.

Electrical Infrastructure. Electrical power is provided to TI and YBI via a Navy-owned power line which is elevated along the south side of the approach to the bridge, crosses under the bridge, and then transitions near the incline to a 12 KV (in a 34.5 KV casing) submarine cable owned by the Navy and the CCSF. The Oakland cable is connected to the Navy’s Davis Substation located at the former Fleet and Industrial Supply Center (FISC) site in Oakland.

In the Oakland Touchdown area, there are several electrical power lines. South of the existing SFOBB, there are a 480 KV and two 12 KV overhead lines mounted on poles. One 12 KV line is owned by Caltrans. The other 12 KV line and the 480 KV line are owned by Pacific Gas & Electric Co. (PG&E). From the substation, the 12 KV line extends underground onto the existing SFOBB. North of the existing SFOBB, there is an underground 5 KV line running along I-80.

Telecommunications Infrastructure. Telecommunications service is provided to TI and YBI from San Francisco via a conduit system located on the West Span of the SFOBB.

Pacific Bell and a consortium have fiber optic cables and telephone lines located south of the existing SFOBB on YBI and in the Oakland Touchdown area and on the existing SFOBB. Three mobile phone sites are located on YBI, owned by Verizon Communications, Cingular Wireless, and AT&T Wireless.

Natural Gas Infrastructure. Natural gas is provided to YBI and TI by PG&E from Oakland via a 254-millimeter (10-inch) diameter high-pressure submarine gas main. The line is located on the south side of the existing bridge, crossing under the bridge near the west end of the Oakland Touchdown and entering the Bay north of the bridge where it continues on to YBI/TI.

Police and Fire

The California Highway Patrol (CHP) has jurisdiction over I-80 and the SFOBB for matters involving both traffic and emergency services. Calls from the east and west segments of the bridge are taken by CHP offices in Oakland and San Francisco, respectively. Municipal police departments are not responsible for state bridges and roads unless they are asked to participate in a specific joint investigation or action.

The Oakland CHP office is located at 3601 Telegraph Avenue, close to the interchange of I-580, 24, and I-980 and approximately 1.6 kilometers (1 mile) east of I-80 and the approach to the SFOBB. The CHP office in San Francisco is located on Eighth Street adjacent to the on- and off-ramps for the bridge. In addition, there is a police station on TI which was taken over from the Navy and has been operated by the San Francisco Police Department since late 1997.

The delivery of fire and emergency services within the project area is shared by several jurisdictions, due to the complexity of access to the various segments of the SFOBB and the YBI tunnel. Fires or medical emergencies on the westbound East Span are covered primarily by the Oakland Fire Department with assistance from the Emeryville Fire Department. Two Oakland fire stations and one Emeryville fire station are available to handle emergencies on the East Span.

The San Francisco Fire Department’s (SFFD) Fire Station #48 on TI has primary responsibility to cover incidents on the upper deck (westbound) of the SFOBB from the tunnel to the San Francisco anchorage and on the lower deck (eastbound) from YBI to Oakland. Additional coverage is provided by two SFFD stations on mainland San Francisco which cover the lower (eastbound) deck west of and inside the YBI tunnel.

Schools

There is a school on TI which is part of the San Francisco Unified School District. It includes grades kindergarten through eighth, and over 40 percent of the students participate in programs funded by Chapter 1 to benefit children from low-income families. There is also a Federal Job Corps Culinary Training Program on TI. In Oakland, there are several private and public schools in Census Tract 4017, but the closest school is approximately 3 kilometers (2 miles) from the Oakland Touchdown. In addition, at the former Oakland Army Base, there is a child development center which will remain in operation either at its current location or at a relocated site after the base is transferred to civilian ownership.

Cultural and Recreational Facilities

There are a variety of recreation facilities on TI, including a 103-slip marina in the lagoon between TI and YBI, a fishing pier, parks, ball fields, tennis courts, and a golf driving range. There are a number of indoor recreation resources formerly operated by the Navy. The only recreation area on YBI is on USCG property, and includes a tennis court, basketball courts, and a volleyball court for use by USCG personnel.

Radio Point Beach is located north of the bridge approach and west of the SFOBB Toll Plaza at the end of Radio Road. BCDC requirements for the I-880/Cypress Freeway Replacement Project are discussed in Section 3.1.2 — Developable Land and Development Trends under "Bay Conservation and Development Commission Permit 11-93." If the permit conditions cannot be implemented, the permit allows Caltrans to pay a fee in lieu of constructing the improvements, subject to BCDC approval.

3.1.7 Environmental Justice

Executive Order 12898, Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations, signed by President Clinton on February 11, 1994, directs federal agencies to take appropriate and necessary steps to identify and address disproportionately high and adverse impacts of federal projects on the health or environment of minority and low-income populations to the greatest extent practicable and permitted by law.

The Executive Order requires each Federal agency to take the appropriate steps to identify and avoid any disproportionately high and adverse human health or environmental impacts of Federal programs, policies and activities on minority and low-income populations.

Project Area Limits. The population on YBI in the market-rate rental housing is comprised of diverse racial, ethnic, and income groups. The population is not considered a readily identifiable minority or low-income population or community.

Outside the Project Area. As noted in Section 3.1.4 — Demographic Characteristics of the Project Area and Inclusive Census Tracts, the census tracts encompassing YBI/TI and the Oakland Touchdown area contain identifiable minority and low-income communities; however, these communities are outside of the project area.

3.2 TRANSPORTATION SETTING

This section describes existing and planned transportation facilities in the project vicinity, including the local street and highway system, passenger rail and public transit facilities, bicycle and pedestrian facilities, maritime facilities, and parking facilities. Existing and projected future travel demand are also discussed

3.2.1 Traffic

Existing Street and Highway System

The traffic study area includes I-80 between Yerba Buena Island (YBI) and the SFOBB Toll Plaza, the freeway ramps on YBI, and local streets on YBI and in the Oakland Touchdown area.

The existing San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge (SFOBB) is a double-deck structure. Eastbound traffic travels on the lower deck and westbound traffic travels on the upper deck. The bridge currently accommodates cars, buses, trucks, and motorcycles. There are five 3.3-meter (11-foot) travel lanes on each deck and no shoulders. The posted speed limit is 80 kph (50 mph) for both directions.

YBI is directly linked to the SFOBB by a set of freeway ramps that allow access to and from east- and westbound bridge lanes. There are six ramps, including two westbound on-ramps, one westbound off-ramp, one eastbound on-ramp, and two eastbound off-ramps. The YBI ramps are shown in Figure 3-4 in Appendix A.

On YBI, there are two main roadways: Macalla Road and Treasure Island Road. Macalla Road connects to Treasure Island Road via Southgate Road. Macalla Road also provides access to the northern part of YBI, including most of the housing and the United States Coast Guard (USCG) station. Treasure Island Road traverses the west side of YBI and provides access to Treasure Island (TI). Figure 3-5 in Appendix A shows the YBI street system.

The I-80 freeway, SFOBB Toll Plaza, and existing bridge touchdown dominate the Oakland Touchdown area. Vehicle access to the area is primarily from the distribution structure. Westbound high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes extend to the north and south sides of the SFOBB Toll Plaza from I-80, I-580, and I-880. They terminate on the west side of the SFOBB Toll Plaza where HOV traffic merges with mixed-flow traffic.

Local roadways providing access to the Oakland Touchdown area include Burma Road, an extension of West Grand Avenue, and Maritime Street. These streets are located outside of the project area; however, they provide access to the Oakland Touchdown area and could potentially be affected by the project. These roadways generally have low traffic volume, but it consists of a high percentage of trucks serving the Port of Oakland and local industry. There are other roads in the area which provide access for Caltrans vehicles to the SFOBB Toll Plaza, Caltrans maintenance facility, and auto access to Radio Point Beach and the area to the south of the bridge abutment. Figure 3-6 in Appendix A shows the Oakland Touchdown area roadways, and Figure 3-7 in Appendix A includes the streets outside of the project area that provide access to the Oakland Touchdown area.

Future Roadway Improvements

The 1996 Draft Reuse Plan for Naval Station Treasure Island (NSTI), which documents the CCSF’s redevelopment proposals, includes a Draft Circulation Element for TI and YBI. Due to the limited capacity of the on- and off-ramps connecting YBI with the SFOBB, automobile access to the islands is de-emphasized in the Circulation Element. Instead, the focus is on ferry access to the islands and alternative modes of transportation for circulation on the islands such as foot, bicycle, and shuttle buses. A bus shuttle system would provide service from the TI ferry terminal to TI and YBI, along Macalla and Treasure Island Roads.

The Circulation Element also calls for minor changes in circulation on YBI. The element proposes limited improvements to emergency access. Due to the steep terrain and the threat of landslides, most of the streets on YBI, including Macalla Road, would remain in their current configuration. The SFOBB on- and off-ramps would remain in their present configuration. Treasure Island Road would remain the primary access route between the SFOBB and TI.

No major roadway changes are planned for public roadways within the Oakland Touchdown area. The reconstruction of the SFOBB Toll Plaza may include some minor access improvements to the Toll Plaza parking area.

Existing and Projected Traffic Demand

The SFOBB is the primary motor vehicle link between San Francisco and the San Francisco Peninsula and the East Bay. The westbound approaches are congested during the morning commute period, and the eastbound approaches are congested during the evening peak period. During these times, the SFOBB operates at capacity. The SFOBB is also heavily traveled during off-peak travel times. Traffic flow on the SFOBB is vulnerable to congestion due to stalls, accidents, lane closures required for bridge maintenance, and the lack of shoulders for clearing stopped vehicles. Approximately 272,000 vehicles use the SFOBB daily. In the morning peak-hour, 10,800 westbound vehicles use the SFOBB.

The freeway ramps to and from the SFOBB on YBI typically operate with no more than 200 vehicles during the peak hour. Despite low traffic volumes, the eastbound on-ramp operates at capacity in the afternoon peak hour due to severely restricted design limitations (e.g., tight curves and short merges onto the bridge).

All of the local streets in the project area (YBI, TI, and the Oakland Touchdown area) currently operate with low traffic volumes. The streets in the Oakland Touchdown area serve primarily truck traffic.

In the future, peak-hour traffic demands on the approaches to the SFOBB are expected to increase. These increases would be due to increased demand for travel between the East and West Bay Area. Traffic volumes for westbound PM peak and eastbound AM peak may increase due to possible changes in commute patterns. Also, Average Daily Traffic (ADT) may increase due to unused capacity available during off-peak travel times. However, traffic volumes on the bridge are expected to remain fairly constant during the westbound AM peak period and the eastbound PM peak period because the bridge constrains traffic volumes.

3.2.2 Transit

Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit), the provider of transbay bus service, currently operates 37 transbay bus routes, totaling 654 daily bus trips, between East Bay cities and the Transbay Transit Terminal in San Francisco. Service is provided during daytime and evening hours with most service provided during morning and afternoon commute periods. Transbay buses access the SFOBB via West Grand Avenue, Maritime Street, I-580, I-80, and I-880. The buses use the HOV lanes at the SFOBB Toll Plaza. West Grand Avenue is a major access route for nine AC Transit Transbay routes. Two bus routes (one transbay, one local) also operate on Maritime Street. There are no public transit routes operating on surface streets in the Oakland Touchdown area. In 1998, AC Transit carried about 13,000 passengers across the bridge per day and between 2,100 and 3,200 in the PM peak hour.

The San Francisco Municipal Railway (Muni) provides local bus service (Route 108) between TI and the Transbay Transit Terminal in San Francisco via the SFOBB. Route 108 operates at hourly headways on weekdays and serves a bus stop at the TI gate and a bus stop on YBI for the USCG facility.

Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) provides about 546 daily transbay trains in the corridor. BART carries about 148,900 transbay passengers per day and approximately 30,000 passengers in the two-hour peak commute period each morning and afternoon.

3.2.3 Non-Motorized Traffic: Bicycles and Pedestrians

Existing Facilities

Bicycles and pedestrians are prohibited from using the SFOBB. No bicycle or pedestrian facilities exist elsewhere within the project limits, except for a few pedestrian facilities on YBI that include sidewalks, footpaths, and stairways. Most of the roadways on the island are not designed to accommodate pedestrians and bicycles, but do not explicitly forbid non-motorized travel. The 1996 Draft Reuse Plan identifies bicycle and pedestrian travel as important future travel modes on YBI and TI. (See Figure 3-5 in Appendix A for existing streets and pedestrian facilities on YBI.)

Currently, bicyclists and pedestrians have several transit options for travel in the SFOBB corridor:

Planned Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities

Several bikeway and pedestrian facilities have been planned in the East Bay portion of the study area:

3.2.4 Maritime Traffic

Ferries

Two companies provide ferry service between the East Bay and San Francisco. The Alameda/Oakland Ferry provides 13 daily round trips from Jack London Square in Oakland to the San Francisco Ferry Building and six daily trips to Pier 39 in San Francisco. All trips make a stop at the Alameda Main Street Terminal. None of the terminals are located within the project area. The ferries pass below the SFOBB West Span on their route and do not travel through the SFOBB East Span Project area.

Harbor Bay Maritime also provides ferry service between San Francisco and the East Bay. The only East Bay stop is made at Harbor Island in Alameda, outside the project limits. These ferries pass below the SFOBB West Span on their route across the Bay to the Ferry Building in San Francisco and do not travel through the East Span Project area.

Maritime Operations

The SFOBB traverses the Central Bay Subregion of the San Francisco Bay between the cities of San Francisco and Oakland. The western portion of the Central Bay is characterized by relatively deep water, high tidal water exchange through the Golden Gate, and strong currents. This area is dominated by rocky shorelines. The eastern portion of the Central Bay is dominated by shallow mudflats.

The San Francisco Bay is used by commercial and recreational maritime traffic. The main navigation opening under the East Span of the SFOBB is located between Piers E2 and E3. It is used by commercial navigation traveling under the East Span (the main navigation opening is shown on Figure 2-9 in Appendix A). It is approximately 405 meters (1,328 feet) wide with 56 meters (184 feet) of vertical clearance above mean high water. The controlling depth in this area is 7.6 meters (25 feet). The largest commercial vessels using this waterway are tug and fuel barge combinations, derricks, dredges, tour boats, and occasionally small freighters. The USCG has established a regulated navigation area for the portion of San Francisco Bay east of YBI, precluding vessels of more than 1,450 gross tonnes (1,600 gross tons) or tugs with a tow of 1,450 gross tonnes (1,600 gross tons) or more from meeting, crossing, or overtaking a vessel of similar size. Larger commercial vessels transit beneath the SFOBB west of YBI.

Two maritime facilities are currently located within the project area. They are the Port of Oakland’s Bay Bridge Terminal area and the USCG moorings on YBI. However, recent amendments to BCDC's San Francisco Bay Plan and Seaport Plan have changed land use designations in the Bay Bridge Terminal area. The "Port Priority Use" has been deleted. In addition, there is an existing pleasure/recreational craft marina on TI at Clipper Cove. The CCSF is in the process of expanding services and making improvements to Clipper Cove.

3.2.5 Truck Routes and Truck Traffic

Trucks are a major component of vehicular traffic on certain study area roadways. I-80 is a major local, regional, and interstate truck route, carrying approximately 8,430 truck trips daily on the SFOBB, or about three percent of the annual average daily traffic (AADT) volume. Local streets, including Maritime Street, Burma Road, and the maintenance roads in the Oakland Touchdown area serve primarily truck traffic associated with the Port of Oakland.

3.2.6 Parking

Yerba Buena Island

One paved area used for parking is located within the project area on YBI. It is located east of Quarters 1 and can accommodate approximately 315 parking spaces. This area was formerly used for special events at the Officers' Quarters and is now controlled by Caltrans through a temporary construction easement. During construction, Navy/CCSF will need to contact and get permission from Caltrans if they would like to use it. On-street parking within the project area is difficult because the roadways are narrow; however, two designated on-street spaces are located just south of the SFOBB on Treasure Island Road. Additional on-street parking is located in the residential neighborhoods at former Navy facilities and at current USCG facilities.

Oakland Touchdown Area

In the Oakland Touchdown area, parking for SFOBB Toll Plaza and other workers currently exists in the median area between the westbound and eastbound lanes of I-80. Other land uses in the touchdown area have "informal" parking areas because the land is open and flat. In addition, under BCDC Permit 11-93, Caltrans is required to provide six parking spaces on the south side of the Oakland Touchdown for use by visitors to the view lookout areas.

3.2.7 Federal Aviation Administration

The existing and proposed SFOBB structures are required to conform to Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Regulations Part 77, "Objects Affecting Navigable Airspace." The conformance requires both obstruction marking and lighting in accordance with FAA Advisory Circular AC70/7460 effective January 1, 1996.

3.2.8 United States Coast Guard

The existing and proposed SFOBB structures are required to conform to USCG Regulations Parts 114 and 115 of Title 33, Code of Federal Regulations. Conformance with these regulations requires that marine navigation channels remain navigable during and after construction. The appropriate levels of lighting and obstruction markings are required to identify permanent and temporary bridge structures.

3.3 VISUAL SETTING

As described below, the visual setting was evaluated from 20 viewpoints around the Bay Area and within each of the distinct landscape units which make up the study area. For more information on this visual assessment, the Visual Impact Assessment technical report is available at the locations listed in the Preface of this document. The Visual Impact Assessment technical report includes a CD-ROM with photographs, simulated drive-throughs, and an interactive map of visual simulations. Since publication of the Visual Impact Assessment, three additional viewpoints have been added to the visual analysis in response to agency comments. As a result, the three additional viewpoints are discussed in this EIS (see Figures 4-15a through 4-17c in Appendix A), but not included in the Visual Impact Assessment technical report.

3.3.1 Existing Visual Character and Context

Regional Landscape and Scenic Resources

The Bay Area is one of the most scenic areas of the world, combining water, islands, urban skylines, bridges, and mountains into picturesque and impressive vistas. Seven different bridges span the Bay, each one constituting a significant scenic resource in its own right. The Golden Gate Bridge is known around the world for its grace and beauty. However, all seven bridges, including the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge (SFOBB), the Richmond-San Rafael Bridge, the San Mateo-Hayward Bridge, and the Dumbarton Bridge, span significant stretches of open water and are highly visible from vantage points around the Bay. San Francisco Bay extends over 97 kilometers (60 miles) from the Sacramento River Delta to the marshlands of Santa Clara County, a total of more than 1,000 square kilometers (386 square miles). The Bay is a rich marine resource providing navigable waterways for commerce and habitat for countless species.

The cities of Oakland and San Francisco are located across the Bay from one another, roughly midway between the northern and southern ends of the Bay. For viewers both on and off the water, the area between these two cities is particularly scenic. Four major islands (Alcatraz, Angel, Treasure, and Yerba Buena) are found in this region: Mt. Tamalpais and the hills of Marin County tower to the northwest; the East Bay hills of Oakland and Berkeley rise dramatically to the east; and the skylines of Oakland and San Francisco complement the area’s natural beauty. The preservation of the aesthetic quality of this region is of particular importance to decision-makers and the millions of people who live in and visit the Bay Area each year.

Context of the East Span within the Bay Area

Along with the Golden Gate Bridge, the SFOBB is one of the Bay Area’s most prominent man-made features. See Figure 3-8 in Appendix A for visual context.

The SFOBB East Span is a highly visible structure that can be seen from cities on the west side of the Bay (San Francisco, Sausalito) as well as from cities in the East Bay (including Alameda, Oakland, Berkeley, Emeryville, Albany, El Cerrito, and Richmond). For eastbound motorists, the SFOBB East Span is the gateway to Oakland and the East Bay. While motorists traveling in this direction on the existing East Span have views of the City and Port of Oakland to the south and the hills behind the communities of Berkeley and Emeryville to the north, these views are highly obstructed by the upper deck of the bridge and the steel trusses which line the bridge.

3.3.2 Existing Landscape Units and Visual Image Types

The study area has been subdivided into "landscape units" to facilitate its description and analysis of the project. Landscape units are geographically distinct portions of the study area which have a particular visual character. In the study area, the five landscape units identified are Yerba Buena Island (YBI), the main span (cantilever section) of the existing East Span, the incline section of the East Span, the Oakland Touchdown area, and the SFOBB Toll Plaza. The boundaries of each landscape unit are shown in Figure 3-9 in Appendix A and described in Table 3.3-1. Figure 3-10a in Appendix A includes representative photographs of the landscape units.

Each landscape unit has a certain visual character based upon the land uses that comprise it. These smaller scale land uses and landforms within each landscape unit are called "visual image types." Visual image types are areas that exhibit a fairly homogeneous visual quality. The visual image types are depicted in Figures 3-10b and 3-10c in Appendix A.

Table 3.3-1 Landscape Units

Landscape Unit

Description

Yerba Buena Island (YBI)

  • 57 ha (142 acres) in size, 103 m (338 ft) maximum elevation above mean sea level.
  • Visually, the island appears to be largely undeveloped: steep, wooded hillsides leading down to the shoreline. The existing East Span is the island’s most prominent manmade feature.
  • Structures visible from the SFOBB East Span: USCG facilities, the observation tower, and tunnel portal.
  • Visual image types present on the island include residential, industrial, military, historic, and open space

The Main Span (Cantilever Section)

  • 1.6 km (1 mile) long, up to 61 m (200 ft) above mean sea level.
  • Composed of steel beams, grayish-silver in color, which form a zigzag pattern along either side of the roadway between the upper and lower decks.
  • Fashioned in a style reminiscent of a train trestle. Includes a 737-meter (2,418-foot) cantilever truss adjacent to YBI, five high truss spans of slightly more than 152 meters (500 feet) each.
  • Visual image types present include open space (Bay) and historic (the bridge).

Table 3.3-1 Landscape Units (Continued)

Landscape Unit

Description

The Incline Section

  • 1.7 km long (1.1 miles), rising from mean sea level to meet the cantilever section at 61 m (200 ft) above mean sea level.
  • Connects the cantilever section of the SFOBB East Span to the Oakland Touchdown area.
  • Composed of steel beams, grayish-silver in color which form a zigzag pattern along either side of the roadway between the upper and lower decks.
  • Visual image types present include open space (Bay) and historic (the bridge).

Oakland Touchdown

  • 1.6 km (1 mile) from the SFOBB Toll Plaza to where the East Span begins its incline.
  • Area is flat and rises only a few meters above sea level.
  • On the north side of the touchdown is an open area adjacent to the mudflats of the Emeryville Crescent. This area harbors several pine trees and low marshland vegetation.
  • On the south side of the span, industrial uses, including open storage, the EBMUD dechlorination facility, and two maintenance buildings, one once part of the historic Key System, are located at the extreme western end of the touchdown. An undeveloped area owned by the U.S. Army exists along the shoreline at the southern edge of the touchdown area.
  • Visual image types include industrial, historic, and open space.

SFOBB Toll Plaza

  • Ground level, encompassing 15 lanes of westbound traffic.
  • Entirely man-altered with broad expanses of asphalt where vehicles queue to pay tolls and six lanes of eastbound traffic continuing off the bridge toward the network of highways in the East Bay.
  • Main Bridge Administration Building is located at the SFOBB Toll Plaza, along with a series of Caltrans maintenance and repair buildings which support the operation and maintenance of the SFOBB.
  • Visual image types in this landscape unit consist of military and industrial.

Source: Visual Impact Assessment, September 1998.

3.3.3 Viewer Groups and Viewpoints

Viewer groups include those viewers who can expect to see views from the bridge and those who can expect to see views to the bridge. Viewer groups are defined as those viewers most likely to share similar exposure to and expectations of their view from and to the SFOBB East Span.

Views from the Bridge

Views from the bridge are seen from motor vehicles. Viewer groups include commuters, recreational users, and commercial users.

Commuters. The flow of commuting traffic is primarily westbound (to San Francisco) during the morning period and primarily eastbound (to Oakland and surrounding communities) in the afternoon period.

Westbound traffic on the SFOBB rides on the upper deck of the bridge. Westbound views are partially obstructed by the architecture of the bridge itself, most noticeably by the presence of a 1.2-meter (4-foot) high solid railing that runs along either side of the roadway. The construction style includes steel beams that reach from the upper deck into the cantilever structure at regular intervals, partially obstructing views from automobiles. Nevertheless, commuters have several dramatic views, including the skyline of San Francisco and the Marin Headlands, as they proceed westward.

Eastbound traffic on the SFOBB rides on the lower deck of the span. Views from the lower deck are significantly obstructed for three reasons: the presence of the westbound roadway above, the presence of a 1.2-meter (4-foot) high solid railing that lines either side of the lower span, and the presence of steel beams that span from the upper to lower deck at regular intervals. For motorists commuting in sport utility vehicles, buses, and other vehicles with a higher passenger compartment, visibility is less compromised by the solid railing and the architecture of the bridge.

Recreational Users. Recreational users of the bridge include tourists enjoying the scenery of the Bay, outdoor enthusiasts traveling to points eastward from San Francisco, and people making their way to events or gatherings outside of their working environment. All recreational users are in vehicles as there are no bicycle or pedestrian facilities on the SFOBB.

Commercial Users. Commercial users include truck drivers, delivery personnel, bus drivers, and other people involved in day-to-day commerce in the Bay Area. Commercial users might make several trips across the bridge on a daily basis. Commercial users would tend to ride in vehicles with a higher passenger compartment and so would enjoy greater visibility from the bridge.

Views to the Bridge

The viewers’ experience of the bridge varies considerably based upon their location, the duration of their view, and the frequency with which they are exposed to views of the bridge. To provide a representative sample of what changes viewers across the San Francisco Bay Area would experience in their viewshed as a result of construction of a new bridge, a cross section of viewers and viewpoints was chosen. Please see Figures 4-5 through 4-15 in Appendix A for photographs of views toward the East Span.

Viewer Groups. Viewer groups identified in this section include commuters, ferry passengers, residents and workers, and recreational users/tourists.

Commuters with views to the East Span exist on both sides of the Bay. Commuters traveling on the interstate highway system in the East Bay on sections of I-80 westbound and I-880 northbound have particularly clear views and would be most sensitive to changes to the East Span.

Ferry passengers primarily include commuters between various points in the East and North Bay and San Francisco. Ferry passengers view the East Span from the Bay surface.

Residential viewers and workers exist on both sides of the Bay. Views vary greatly within this group, based on proximity, view obstruction, and the location and elevation of the residence/workplace. Residents and workers with clear, unobstructed views would be most sensitive to changes to the East Span. In the East Bay, potential viewers may live/work in Oakland, Emeryville, Berkeley, Albany, El Cerrito, Richmond, or San Leandro. In the West Bay, potential viewers may live/work in San Francisco, Sausalito, Tiburon, or elsewhere in Marin County.

Recreational users and tourists have abundant opportunities to view the East Span from all around the Bay Area. Activities such as boating, kayaking, windsurfing, and fishing make use of the Bay itself, while activities such as sightseeing, hiking, and walking often incorporate a view of the Bay. These users would typically be very sensitive to changes to the East Span.

Existing Visual Quality. Representative viewpoints were identified and were used to simulate the proposed project alternatives. This was done to assist in the analysis and documentation of visual resource changes. The location of these viewpoints within the Bay Area is depicted in Figure 3-11 in Appendix A. Potential viewpoints were chosen on the basis of a variety of factors, including high visibility/close proximity to sensitive viewers, specific views or types of views identified as important by the public, representative of specific viewers or viewer groups, and range of view types available to the public (close proximity to long-distance views).

The existing visual quality for each of the viewpoints identified was evaluated using an approach to scenic quality evaluation that looks for indicators of the level of visual relationships rather than on a judgment of physical landscape components. This approach provides a set of three evaluative criteria developed under the sponsorship of the FHWA in previous visual impact studies: vividness, intactness, and unity.

These criteria are defined as follows:

The results of this analysis of existing visual quality are summarized in Table 3.3-2.

Table 3.3-2 Summary of Existing Visual Quality

Viewpoint

Setting

Vividness

Intactness

Unity

Richmond Marina

9.6 km (6 mi.) north of span. Coastal. Sea level.

Moderate-to-high

Moderate-to-high

Moderate-to-high

Berkeley Pier

4.8 km (3 mi.) northeast of span. Coastal. Sea level.

High

High

Moderate

The Claremont Hotel

8.0 (5 mi.) kilometers northeast of span. Inland. Elevated.

Low

Low-to-moderate

High

I-80 between University Ave. and Ashby Ave.

4.0 km (2.5 mi.) northeast of span (moving southbound). Inland. Sea level.

Moderate

Low-to-moderate

Low-to-moderate

Emeryville Marina

2.5 km (1.6 mi.) northeast of span. Coastal. Sea level.

Moderate

Moderate

Moderate-to-high

Oakland Touchdown Area

60 m (200 ft.) south of span. Coastal. Sea level.

High

High

High

I-880 Approaching the SFOBB

9.8 km (6 mi.) east of span at closest point (moving). Inland. Elevated.

Moderate

Low-to-moderate

Low-to-moderate

Oakland Federal Building

5.6 km (3.5 mi.) southeast of the span. Inland. Elevated.

Low-to-moderate

Moderate

Moderate-to-high

Alameda Naval Air Station

4.0 km (2.5 mi.) south of span. Inland. Sea level.

Moderate-to-high

Moderate

Moderate

Oakland-San Francisco Ferry

As close as 0.8 km (0.5 mi.) south of span (moving west-east). In the Bay. Sea level.

High

High

High

Hunters Point

10.0 km (6.3 mi.) southwest of span. Coastal. Sea level.

Moderate

Moderate-to-high

High

Potrero Hill

7.0 km (4.4 mi.) southwest of span. Inland. Elevated.

Moderate

Moderate

Moderate-to-high

Pier 39

5.0 km (3 mi.) west of span. Coastal. Sea level.

Low-to-moderate

Moderate-to-high

Moderate

Treasure Island­Viewpoint 1

0.8 km (0.5 mi.) northwest of span. Coastal. Sea level.

High

High

Moderate-to-high

Treasure Island­Viewpoint 2a

0.8 km (0.5 mi.) north of span. Coastal. Sea level.

High

High

Moderate-to-high

Sausalito

12.0 km (7.5 mi.) northwest of the span. Coastal. Sea level.

Moderate

Moderate-to-high

High

Angel Island

7.2 km (4.5 mi.) northwest of span. Inland. Elevated.

Moderate-to-high

Moderate

High

Vallejo-San Francisco Ferry

As close as 2.5 km (1.6 mi.) northwest of span (moving south-north). In the Bay. Sea level.

High

Moderate-to-high

High

Nimitz House, YBIa

Within 100 meters (328 feet) north and west of the span. The span is approximately 30 meters (98 feet) above the viewpoint.

High

Low

Low

Yerba Buenaa

74 meters (250 feet) north of span. Forest. Historic buildings. Sea level.

High

Moderate-to-low

Moderate-to-low

Source: Visual Impact Assessment, September 1998.

aThese viewpoints added after completion of the Visual Impact Assessment.

3.4 AIR QUALITY

The impacts of air pollution on health and other aspects of the quality of life are considered harmful by regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Several federal, state, and local regulations and programs exist to protect and improve air quality in the Bay Area.

3.4.1 Regulatory Context

Federal Regulations

Pursuant to the federal Clean Air Act of 1970 and its subsequent amendments, the EPA established ambient air pollutant concentration standards and maximum allowable emission rates for certain individual sources of air pollutants. EPA made each state responsible for attaining ambient air quality standards—National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)—within its borders. A State Implementation Plan (SIP) must be prepared that demonstrates how each state will attain the NAAQS.

NAAQS have been established for seven criteria air pollutants: ozone, carbon monoxide, particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than ten micrometers (PM10), particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5), nitrogen oxides, lead, and sulfur dioxide. Primary standards for air pollutants were established to protect public health, while secondary standards were established to protect the public welfare by preventing impairment of visibility and damage to vegetation and property. The federal primary standards are listed in Table 3.4-1. The table also summarizes the attainment status for each criteria pollutant regulated by the EPA.

On the federal level, the Bay Area has been designated as an attainment (meeting standards) or unclassified (i.e., available data do not support a designation of non-attainment or attainment) area for all pollutants, except ozone. In June 1998, the EPA re-designated the Bay Area as non-attainment area for ozone because the area had 11 violations in 1995 and six violations in 1996. The Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD), the local agency in charge of controlling air pollution and attaining air quality standards in the Bay Area, developed an Ozone Attainment Plan, which was adopted in June 1999. The EPA has indicated that the 1999 Ozone Attainment Plan is inadequate. As a result, the Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC), the Air Resources Board, and the BAAQMD are preparing a revised Ozone Attainment Plan for submittal to EPA by July 2001. The BAAQMD hopes to achieve attainment by 2003.

Under the Clean Air Act, regions that are maintenance areas (i.e., geographic areas that were previously designated non-attainment areas, but now meet the applicable standard) still must demonstrate how they will maintain compliance with the standard. The BAAQMD has prepared a Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan that includes information on control measures that will be used to keep the Bay Area in attainment for at least the next ten years.

In addition to other SIP and Air Quality Plan activities, federal agencies must also make a determination of conformity with the SIP before taking any action on a proposed

Table 3.4-1 State and Federal Air Quality Standards

   

California Standards

National Standards

 

Pollutant

Averaging Time

 

Concentration

Bay Area Attainment Statusa


Concentration

Bay Area Attainment Status

Ozone

1-hour

0.09 ppm

(180 µg/m3)

N

0.12 ppm

(235 µg/m3)

Nb

 

8-hourc

---

---

0.08 ppm

(157 µg/m3)

U

Carbon Monoxide

8-hour

9.0 ppm

(10 mg/m3)

A

9 ppm

(10 mg/m3

A

 

1-hour

20 ppm

(23 mg/m3)

A

35 ppm

(40 mg/m3)

A

Nitrogen Dioxide

Annual Average

---

---

0.053 ppm

(100 µg/m3)

A

 

1-hour

0.25 ppm

(470 µg/m3)

A

---

---

Sulfur Dioxide

Annual Average

---

---

80 µg/m3

(0.03 ppm)

A

 

24-hour

0.04 ppm

(105 µg/m3)

A

365 µg/m3

(0.14 ppm)

A

 

1-hour

0.25 ppm

(655 µg/m3)

A

---

---

Suspended Particulate Matter (PM10)

Annual Arithmetic Mean

---

---

50 µg/m3

A

 

Annual Geometric Mean

30 µg/m3

N

---

---

 

24-hour

50 µg/m3

N

150 µg/m3

U

Suspended Particulate Matter (PM2.5)c

Annual Arithmetic Mean

---

---

15 µg/m3

U

 

24-hour

---

---

65 µg/m3

U

Lead

Calendar Quarter

---

---

1.5 µg/m3

A

 

30-Day Average

1.5 µg/m3

A

---

---

Source: California Air Resources Board, Proposed Amendments to the Area Designations for State Ambient Air Quality Standards and Proposed Maps of the Area Designations for the State and National Ambient Air Quality Standards, October 1999.

Notes:

a A = Attainment. N = Non-attainment. U = Unclassified.

b The Bay Area was re-designated as non-attainment for ozone in June 1998.

c The 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 standards were struck down by a federal court in May of 1999. EPA will appeal.

project located in a non-attainment or maintenance area. In 1993, EPA published the General Conformity Rule that indicates how federal agencies are to make such a determination. A similar rule was created to specifically address conformity issues related to highway or transit projects that receive funding or approval from FHWA or the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). The most recent version of the Transportation Conformity Rule is July 1997. In general, transportation projects must not cause or contribute to new violations of air quality standards, worsen existing violations, or interfere with timely attainment of standards. Regional transportation plans (RTPs) and transportation improvement programs (TIPs) must conform to the SIP. Individual projects must come from a conforming RTP and TIP, be included in the regional emissions analysis for the RTP and TIP, or be included in a newly performed regional analysis.

Projects must also be analyzed for their localized air quality impacts in PM10 and carbon monoxide non-attainment or maintenance areas. Guidance for performing PM10 analyses is not yet available.

State Regulations

The California Air Resources Board (CARB) coordinates and oversees the activities of California's many local air quality agencies. The CARB is also responsible for incorporating local non-attainment plans into the SIP. The CARB has established state ambient air quality standards, many of which are more stringent than the corresponding NAAQS (see Table 3.4-1 for a comparison of the standards). The CARB and the local air quality agencies operate numerous air quality monitoring stations throughout the state. Data collected at these stations are used to classify areas and air basins as attainment or non-attainment for each criteria air pollutant based on whether the federal and state standards have been achieved.

The California Clean Air Act (CCAA), which became effective on January 1, 1989, provides a planning framework for attainment of California Air Quality Standards. Local air quality agencies in violation of state ambient air quality standards are required to prepare plans for attaining the state standards.

The San Francisco Bay Area has been classified by the CARB as a serious state non-attainment area for ozone. The Bay Area 1994 Clean Air Plan included a comprehensive strategy to reduce ground-level ozone in the Bay Area. This plan was updated in 1997. The Bay Area 1997 Clean Air Plan includes changes in the organization and scheduling of some of the 1994 Clean Air Plan control measures and also includes 12 new stationary and mobile source control measures, as well as two new transportation control measures.

The Bay Area also does not attain state PM10 ambient air quality standards, but attainment programs for PM10 are not yet required. The California Legislature, when it passed the California Clean Air Act in 1988, recognized that PM10 attainment could not be easily obtained. The CCAA did require the CARB to produce a report regarding the prospect of achieving the state ambient air quality standard for PM10. The CARB recommended that certain actions be taken, but did not impose a planning process to require attainment by a certain date.

3.4.2 Meteorology and Topography

The primary factors affecting local air quality are the locations of air pollutant sources and the amounts of pollutants emitted, but meteorological and topographical conditions also are important. Atmospheric conditions such as wind speed, wind direction, and air temperature gradients interact with the physical features of the landscape to determine the movement and dispersal of air pollutants. Another important factor is the Pacific Ocean, which moderates temperatures and helps create consistent wind gradients.

The San Francisco Bay Area has complex terrain, relatively strong prevailing winds because of its proximity to the Pacific Ocean, and strong temperature gradients between the coast and inland areas. Consequently, the Bay Area has low potential for accumulation of pollutants near the coast and high potential in sheltered inland valleys. The project is in an area where pollution potential is very low due largely to good ventilation and less influx of pollutants from upwind sources. However, on occasion, the area does experience warm temperatures, calm winds, and pollutant stagnation.

3.4.3 Existing Project Area Air Quality

Monitoring data in the project area are limited. The criteria pollutant monitoring stations closest to the project site are located on Alice Street (near Jack London Square) in Oakland and at the county hospital in San Leandro. Monitored values at these stations may be slightly higher than actual concentrations in the project area, since there are so few pollutant sources near the SFOBB. The Alice Street station measures ozone and carbon monoxide and the San Leandro station measures for ozone and PM10. Table 3.4-2 summarizes recent monitoring data from these two stations.

The monitoring data for 1995 through 1998 show that the area occasionally violates state ozone and 24-hour PM10 standards and, even more rarely, exceeds the federal ozone standard. The Oakland station monitored only one state ozone violation during the four years examined. During the same four years, the San Leandro station had 13 violations of the state ozone standard and three violations of the federal standard. The California 24-hour PM10 standard was exceeded twice. All other pollutant levels were below federal and state standards.

Table 3.4-2 Air Pollutant Data Summary (1995-1998)

   

Year

   

1995

1996

1997

1998


Pollutant

Averaging
Time

Concentration (ppm)

Concentration (ppm)

Concentration (ppm)

Concentration (ppm)

Ozone

1-hour (O)a

(SL)a

0.11c

0.15

0.09

0.11

0.08

0.11

0.06

0.11

Carbon Monoxide

8-hour (O)

3.9

3.9

3.6

4.6

 

1-hour (O)

5.0

7.0

8.0

6.0

Suspended Particulate Matter (PM10)b

Annual Arithmetic Mean (SL)

19.5

21.3

17.4

14.0

 

Annual Geometric Mean (SL)

16.9

19.1

15.9

13.2

 

24-hour (SL)

47

59

65

32

Source: California Air Resources Board (1996, 1997, 1998, and 1999).

a (O) = Oakland Alice Street monitoring station.
(SL) = San Leandro County Hospital monitoring station.

b Units of measurement for PM10 are µg/m3 (micrograms per cubic meter).

c Underline indicates exceedance of standard.

3.5 NOISE AND VIBRATION

This section describes the affected environment for noise and vibration. It discusses how noise and vibration are measured and reported, criteria for assessing noise levels, and measured and modeled noise and vibration levels at Yerba Buena Island (YBI), Treasure Island (TI), and along the Oakland shoreline. A detailed Noise and Vibration Study technical report has been prepared and is available for review at the locations indicated in the Preface.

3.5.1 Noise

Perception of Noise and Noise Descriptors

A number of factors affect sound as it is perceived by the human ear. These include the actual level of sound (or noise), the frequencies involved, the period of exposure to the noise, the changes or fluctuations in the noise levels during exposure, and meteorological conditions (wind speed, direction, inversions, humidity, etc.). Levels of noise are measured in units called decibels (dB). Since the human ear cannot perceive all pitches or frequencies equally well, measured sound levels are adjusted or weighted to correspond to human hearing. This adjusted unit is known as the "A-weighted" decibel. All references to noise in this report refer to A-weighted decibel levels, or dBA. A few examples of dBA noise levels are 40 dBA (typical of quiet urban nighttime), 88 dBA (typical of a diesel truck passing by at 15 meters [50 feet]), and 105 dBA (typical of a jet flying over at 305 meters [1,000 feet]).

Very few noises are constant. Most fluctuate in decibel level over short periods of time. One way of describing fluctuating sound is to report the fluctuating noise heard over a specific time period as if it had been a steady, unchanging sound. For this, a descriptor called the Equivalent Sound Level, Leq, is computed. Leq is the constant sound level (A-weighted) that, for a given situation and period (e.g., 1-hour Leq or 24-hour Leq), conveys the same sound energy as the actual time-varying sound. The 1-hour Leq during the noisiest hour is often used to determine if a traffic noise impact exists and to determine abatement measures for roadway noise, while 24-hour cumulative Leq averaging methods are used to evaluate typical noise exposure in an area.

Traffic Noise

Roadway noise is dependent on many factors: vehicle type and speed, number of vehicles, roadway surface and gradient, distance from the roadway to the receiver, ground surface (whether hard or soft), and shielding due to structures, soundwalls, hills, the edge of a roadway, and earth berms between a receiver and the road. For example, increases in vehicle speed and/or traffic will increase the noise level.

Roadway surface and gradient will also affect traffic noise. Noise from rough and potholed surfaces can be three to four dBA higher than smooth seal-coated surfaces. A steeper road gradient will primarily affect the level of truck traffic noise. The SFOBB generates higher noise levels than a typical roadway, due to the reverberation of sound and vibration within the bridge structure, and the reflection of noise from the upper deck.

Evaluating Noise Levels

Noise impacts from operation of a roadway usually assessed by evaluating the total predicted noise level and evaluating differences between the existing and future noise environments. When evaluating operational noise increases in the environment, the following relationships to quantifiable increases are used as a basis for assessing impacts:

3.5.2 Land Uses and Noise- and Vibration-sensitive Receptors

Although the majority of the project area is located over Bay waters, the existing and proposed bridge alternatives cross or are near a variety of existing and future land uses, with varying degrees of noise and vibration sensitivity. These are briefly summarized below.

Yerba Buena Island

The U.S. Navy (Navy) and the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) have former and existing residential units on YBI. These include the Navy’s residential Quarters 1 through 7, apartment buildings containing about 105 housing units, and the USCG’s enlisted and officers’ quarters. The USCG also maintains various offices, maintenance and repair facilities, and outdoor tennis, basketball, and volleyball courts. These existing uses are currently exposed to noise from the existing bridge traffic. Conceptual plans for YBI outlined in the 1996 Draft Reuse Plan anticipate use of the area by the City and County of San Francisco (CCSF) for residential uses, visitor-serving attractions, conference facilities, and open space. The USCG proposes to continue existing uses.

Treasure Island

The northwestern portion of TI was developed for residential uses and includes recreational facilities such as ball fields, tennis courts, a golf driving range, and picnic areas. The eastern and southern portions of the island include administrative uses, and two of the buildings are currently used for film production. There is an existing recreational marina. Future land use plans outlined in the 1996 Draft Reuse Plan, while not defined in great detail to date, include entertainment and visitor attraction facilities; film production and industrial use facilities; hotel, resort, and conference center uses; and potential residential and research and development uses.

Oakland Touchdown Area

This location currently has no noise-sensitive activities or uses. Currently, there are no formal public access facilities to the shoreline, although the area is used informally for fishing and shoreline viewing. The City of Oakland and the East Bay Regional Park District (EBRPD) are planning the Gateway Park and public access facilities on the south side of the Oakland Touchdown. In addition, public access, in the form of bicycle and pedestrian access and viewing areas, is required in this area as a result of previous Caltrans project commitments under BCDC Permit 11-93.

3.5.3 Noise Abatement Criteria and Analysis Guidelines

Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Noise Abatement Criteria (NAC) for various land use ratings (called activity categories) are given in Table 3.5-1. These noise criteria are assigned to both exterior and interior activities. Noise attenuation provided by most residential structures leads to compliance with the interior NAC if the exterior criterion is attained.

Table 3.5-1 Federal Noise Abatement Criteria, Hourly A-Weighted Sound Level - Decibels (dBA)a

Activity

Category

Leq(h)

L10(h)

Description of Activity Category

A

57

(Exterior)

60

(Exterior)

Lands on which serenity and quiet are of extraordinary significance and serve an important public need and where the preservation of those qualities is essential if the area is to continue to serve its intended purpose.

B

67

(Exterior)

70

(Exterior)

Picnic areas, recreation areas, playgrounds, active sports areas, parks, residences, motels, hotels, schools, churches, libraries, and hospitals.

C

72

(Exterior)

75

(Exterior)

Developed lands, properties, or activities not included in Categories A or B above.

D

--

--

Undeveloped lands.

E

52

(Interior)

55

(Interior)

Residences, motels, hotels, public meeting rooms, schools, churches, libraries, hospitals, and auditoriums.

Source: Federal Highway Administration, 1982.

a Either L10(h) or Leq(h), but not both, may be used on a project.

Land uses in the vicinity of the Oakland Touchdown area include industrial and port-related sites, open space, wildlife habitat, and a future public shoreline park. There are currently no formal public access or recreation areas, so the land uses have been classified as Activity Category C. At YBI, land uses include residences, government offices and buildings, currently unused buildings, and open space. Land uses on YBI are classified as Category B, except the government offices and buildings which are Category C. Commercial uses are present on TI and are classified as Category C. These land uses and exterior NAC correspond to the following FHWA activity categories (exterior uses), according to Table 3.5-1:

As described in more detail in Section 4.5 — Noise and Vibration, if these sound levels are predicted to be approached (one dBA below the criteria) or exceeded during the noisiest one-hour period, or if the project will result in a substantial (12 decibels or greater) noise increase, noise abatement measures are to be considered and, if found reasonable and feasible, they are incorporated in the project. A first step in the determination of whether future noise levels will approach or exceed the criteria is to measure noise levels and use this data to establish baseline conditions and calibrate the noise model.

3.5.4 Noise and Vibration Measurements, Model Calibration, and Noise Modeling

The existing noise environment was characterized through the evaluation of field noise measurements. Long-term measurements (at least 24 hours) were made at representative locations (see Figures 3-12 through 3-14 in Appendix A). These locations included the Navy Senior Officers’ Quarters Historic District Building 240, the USCG officers’ quarters, and USCG Bachelor Enlisted Quarters. A long-term measurement was also made on the north side of the bridge at the Oakland Touchdown area. Thirty-eight short-term measurements (approximately 15 minutes long) were also made at representative locations and land uses. These included residential locations, the USCG administrative offices, Building 262, the film studios on TI, and the location of the proposed Oakland Touchdown park. The short-term and long-term measurements were used to calibrate the noise model, providing more accurate modeling of existing and future noise levels generated by traffic.

Future peak-hour noise levels were predicted using the "Sound32" noise model. This model is based on the FHWA noise prediction model STAMINA and uses California Vehicle Noise Emission Levels. Traffic data were developed for the model based on volumes and speed scenarios that would create the loudest hourly peak noise levels. Each scenario was tested, and the "worst-case" traffic speed and volume condition (i.e., 1,600 vehicles per lane per hour traveling at 97 kilometers [60 miles] per hour) was selected for further modeling that created the maximum predicted noise conditions.

Measurements of existing vibration were made at five locations: two on YBI (on the base of a bridge support column [Bent YB3] south of Building 213 and at a point approximately 30 meters [100 feet] north of the bridge column support) and three on TI (4 meters [13 feet] from the shoreline; approximately 23 meters [76 feet] from the film studios on a concrete pillar used as a foundation for metal lattice which appears to have supported a sun/rain cover; and on a large steel manhole cover about 23 meters [76 feet] south of the film studios).

3.5.5 Existing Noise Levels

Generally, the field measurements indicated noise levels in excess of 66 dBA Leq along and near most of the project route. Based on the measured noise levels, noise modeling was performed to predict the highest noise period and level for the peak-noise-hour traffic conditions for the existing bridge. The following is a summary of the results by geographical area. Table 3.5-2 summarizes the results of the long-term (24-hour) noise measurements. Table 3.5-3 lists the measured short-term (generally 10 to 15 minutes in duration) noise levels, while modeled noise levels for the existing bridge and setting are shown in Table 3.5-4. The data in Table 3.5-4 represent the traffic noise during the peak-noise hour using Level-of-Service C-D traffic volumes and speeds (1,600 vehicles per hour per lane traveling at 97 kilometers [60 miles] per hour). The locations of measured and modeled receptors are shown in Figures 3-12 through 3-14 in Appendix A.

Yerba Buena Island

All of the noise measurements conducted on YBI approached or exceeded the FHWA NAC for Activity Category B (residences, parks, recreation areas) of 67 dBA Leq, with the exception of the noise measurements taken at the USCG Officers’ Quarters (Quarters A, B, and C), located south of the bridge and west of the existing Coast Guard station. At that location, noise levels ranged from 60 dBA Leq to 62 dBA Leq. Elsewhere, noise levels ranged from 66 dBA Leq to 74 dBA Leq. These noise levels were verified by repeating the measurement one or more times at selected locations. 24-hour noise measurements at YBI ranged from 59 dBA (24-hour Leq) at Location 5 to 72 dBA (24-hour Leq) at Location 1.

Consistent with the measurements, the noise modeling also showed existing peak noise levels that would exceed the NAC for residential locations (Table 3.5-4). Non-residential land uses, such as the USCG administrative complex, have a NAC of 72 dBA (for Category C land uses). The existing peak-noise-hour level at Location 7 was modeled at 69 to 71 dBA and thus would approach the criteria under worst-case conditions.

The measured and modeled noise levels are primarily generated by traffic on the existing bridge structure. Specifically, the stacked configuration of the bridge causes traffic noise from the lower deck to be reflected from the upper deck underside, and traffic noise components from both the upper and lower decks are also transmitted downward. The expansion joints in the existing bridge structure were observed to cause additional noise as traffic passes over them, because of discontinuities with the roadway surface. Vibration is carried by the joints through the steel superstructure, resulting in the whole structure vibrating and causing noise.

Treasure Island

A noise measurement was conducted in the parking lot of a film studio located on TI (see Figure 3-13 in Appendix A). This site overlooks the East Span, which is approximately 760 meters (2,500 feet) south of the studio. The measured noise level was 62 dBA Leq at this location, and the noise model indicated the peak-noise-hour level to be 67 dBA Leq. These levels are below the NAC for Activity Category C of 72 dBA Leq.

Oakland Touchdown Area

Measured noise levels in the vicinity of the Oakland Touchdown area ranged from 64 to 71 dBA Leq. Modeling of peak-noise-hour traffic conditions indicated levels of 65 to 74 dBA with five of the noise receptors modeled (noise receptors 12-M2, 12-LT, 13A, 13C, and 3-M1 in Table 3.5-4) exceeding the NAC for Activity Category C (the prevalent land use in this area, along with Activity Category D) of 72 dBA Leq. A 24-hour noise measurement conducted at Location 12 resulted in a 24-hour Leq of 71 dBA as seen in Table 3.5-2.


Source: Noise and Vibration Study, September 1998.

3.5.6 Existing Measured Vibrations

Vibration measurements were made at five locations: at and near the bridge columns on YBI and at several points on TI. Short-term measurements were made during freely flowing traffic conditions to obtain representative vibration levels. At the base of the bridge column, the measured vertical peak vibration velocity included background (0.007 centimeter per second [0.003 inch per second]), wind induced (0.01 to 0.02 centimeter per second [0.006-0.007 inch per second]), and truck-related (0.03 centimeter per second [0.01 inch per second]) vibration. The peak vibration velocity measured at a distance of 30 meters (100 feet) from the bridge column included background (0.006 centimeter per second [0.002 inch per second]) and truck-related (0.02 centimeter per second [0.009 inch per second]) vibration. The measurements indicated that heavy-duty trucks crossing the bridge were the primary sources of vibration in the immediate vicinity of the bridge structure.

However, on TI (where film studios are located), measured vibration levels (0.001 to 0.02 centimeter per second [0.0005 to 0.007 inch per second]) were primarily associated with wind and wave action at the shoreline. There was no observed correlation between the measured vibration near the film studios on TI and heavy truck traffic on the SFOBB. It should be noted that the human threshold of perception to continuous vibrations is 0.015 to 0.030 centimeter per second (0.006 to 0.019 inch per second). It is unlikely that the levels measured near the film studios are perceptible by humans. The vibration thresholds for film studio equipment may be lower than the threshold for human perception. It is assumed that the current level of vibration at the film studios is acceptable to the operators of the studios and does not hinder operations.

Table 3.5-3: Short-Term Noise Measurement Data Summary

(Page 1 of 2)

   

Measurement Period

Measurement Results

Measurement Locationa

Measurement Type

Date (month/

day/yr.)

Start Time

(hr:min)

Duration

(min:sec)

Leq(dBA)

Site 1A: YBI: On sidewalk between Bldgs. 1 and 2 adjacent to fire hydrant.

I-80 Traffic Noise

2/9/98

13:55

15:00

69

Site 1B: YBI: Same as 1A.

I-80 Traffic Noise

2/10/98

13:45

15:00

71

Site 1C: YBI: In center of grassy knoll west of Bldg. 4.

I-80 Traffic Noise

2/9/98

14:17

15:00

66

Site 1D: YBI: Same as 1C.

I-80 Traffic Noise

2/10/98

13:15

15:00

68

Site 2A: YBI: 10 feet north of edge of bluff approx. 35' south of bldg.

I-80 Traffic Noise

2/9/98

11:30

15:00

71

Site 2B: YBI: Same as 2A.

I-80 Traffic Noise

2/9/98

11:45

15:00

71

Site 2C: YBI: Same as 2A.

I-80 Traffic Noise

2/10/98

14:55

15:00

71

Site 3A: YBI: 8' north of garage of Bldg. 267. View of lower deck of I-80.

I-80 Traffic Noise

2/9/98

12:30

15:00

71

Site 4A: YBI: Front porch of Quarters 8.

I-80 Traffic Noise

2/11/98

17:30

10:00

70

Site 4B: YBI: Same as 4A.

I-80 Traffic Noise

2/12/98

10:30

10:00

70

Site 5A: YBI: 10' east of Facade of Quarters "B".

I-80 Traffic Noise

2/10/98

12:30

15:00

62

Site 5B: YBI: Same as 5A.

I-80 Traffic Noise

2/11/98

12:45

15:00

61

Site 5C: YBI: In front of Quarters "C" ~ 100' from Site 5A.

I-80 Traffic Noise

2/11/98

13:02

10:00

61

Site 5D: YBI: @ Quarters A (southeast of quarters B & C).

Aircraft & Local Ambient (I-80 noise is low)

2/11/98

12:45

15:00

60

Site 6A: YBI: ~ 1' from 6-LT location @ SW side of basketball court, north of USCG housing.

I-80 Traffic Noise

2/11/98

14:15

15:00

69

Site 6C: YBI: In center of grassy area surrounded by USCG housing.

I-80 Traffic Noise

2/11/98

15:00

15:00

68

Site 7A: YBI: USCG admin bldgs. north side facing the bridge.

I-80 Traffic Noise

2/11/98

17:05

5:00

67

Site 7B: YBI: Same as 7A.

I-80 Traffic Noise

2/11/98

17:15

5:00

67

Site 9A: YBI: In parking lot of Bldg. 213.

I-80 Traffic Noise

2/9/98

16:50

15:00

73

Site 9B: YBI: Same as 9A.

I-80 Traffic Noise

2/11/98

16:00

10:00

73

Note: YBI=Yerba Buena Island; OT=Oakland Touchdown Area; TI=Treasure Island; 1'=0.3048 m

a All measurement locations on YBI are classified as Activity Category B, except locations 7A and 7B which are Category C. Locations on the Oakland Touchdown area and TI are classified as Category C.

Table 3.5-3: Short-Term Noise Measurement Data Summary

   

Measurement Period

Measurement Results

Measurement Locationa

Measurement Type

Date (month/

day/yr.)

Start Time

(hr:min)

Duration

(min:sec)

Leq(dBA)

Site 10A: YBI: Just south of Bldg. 262, (old torpedo factory).

I-80 Traffic Noise

2/9/98

17:30

15:00

74

Site 10B: YBI: Same as 10A.

I-80 Traffic Noise

2/11/98

16:47

5:00

74

Site 11A: YBI: @ tennis courts north of USCG housing.

I-80 Traffic Noise

2/11/98

14:35

15:00

71

Site 11C: YBI: In lot just south of Bldg. 40 (sea cadets residence).

I-80 Traffic Noise

2/11/98

14:50

15:00

73

Site 12A: OT: halfway out on rounded promontory.

I-80 Traffic Noise

2/11/98

11:50

10:00

70

Site 12C: OT: ~ 1 foot from LT location

I-80 Traffic Noise

2/11/98

12:00

15:00

71

Site 13A: OT: 50 feet east of cable station; 25 feet west of end of paved road.

I-80 Traffic Noise

2/11/98

10:10

15:00

70

Site 13C: OT: At fence line near promontory, 10' east of EBMUD chem. treatment bldg.

I-80 Traffic Noise

2/11/98

10:38

15:00

71

Site 17A: OT: ~ 60' from west side of radio bldg., near rear facade line.

I-80 Traffic Noise

2/13/98

11:00

15:00

64

Site 17B: OT: Same as 17A.

I-80 Traffic Noise

2/13/98

11:15

6:00

64

Site 18A: OT: 15 feet north of power pole and 100 feet east of cellular site.

I-80 Traffic Noise

2/11/98

11:00

15:00

65

Site 20A: YBI: Center of field.

I-80 Traffic Noise

2/11/98

16:15

6:00

69

Site 21A: YBI: @ fire hydrant H-44 near edge of bluff, bridge overhead.

I-80 Traffic Noise

2/11/98

16:30

10:00

71

Film Studio: TI: ~ 40 feet south of studio bldg., in parking lot facing bridge.

I-80 Traffic Noise, aircraft

2/12/98

14:00

10:00

62

Note: YBI=Yerba Buena Island; OT=Oakland Touchdown Area; TI=Treasure Island; 1'=0.3048 m

a All measurement locations on YBI are classified as Activity Category B, except locations 7A and 7B which are Category C. Locations on the Oakland Touchdown area and TI are classified as Category C.

Source: Noise and Vibration Study, September 1998.

Table 3.5-4: Summary Of Existing Modeled Peak-Noise-Hour

Noise Levels

Location #

Noise Receptor

Existing Modeled Peak-Noise-Hour Noise Level Leq (dBA)

1

1A

72

 

1C

70

 

1-LT

71

 

1-M1

74

 

1-M2

70

 

1-M3

69

 

1-M4

70

 

1-M5

75

2

2A

74

 

2-M1

71

3

3A

75

4

4A

72

5

5A

66

 

5C

64

 

5D

64

 

5-M1

67

6

6A

72

 

6C

71

 

6-M1

72

 

6-M2

72

7

7A

69

 

7-M1

71

9

9A

76

 

9-M1

76

10

10A

77

 

10-M1

77

11

11A

75

 

11C

77

 

11-M1

77

 

11-M2

77

 

11-M3

77

12

12A

72

 

12-M1

71

 

12-M2

74

 

12-LT

73

13

13A

73

 

13C

74

 

13-M1

73

 

13-M2

71

 

13-M3

71

17

17A

66

 

17-M1

70

18

18A

69

 

18-M1

66

 

18-M2

65

20

20A

72

 

20-M1

72

21

21A

74

 

21-M1

73

 

21-M2

73

 

21-M3

73

 

STUDIO

67

Note: All measurement locations on YBI are classified as Activity Category B, except locations 7A and 7B which are

Category C. Locations on the Oakland Touchdown area and TI are classified as Category C.

Source: Noise and Vibration Study, September 1998.

3.6 HAZARDOUS WASTES

A Hazardous Wastes Assessment was conducted for the East Span Project to identify potential contaminant sources within and adjacent to the project area that may affect design and construction of the project. The assessment is available for review at the locations indicated in the Preface. For purposes of this assessment, hazardous wastes or materials include hazardous substances as regulated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), hazardous wastes as regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the California Hazardous Waste Control Law (HWCL), and other wastes regulated under federal, state, and local regulations. Information in regard to sampling and analysis of sediments that would be dredged as part of the East Span Project is presented in Section 3.12.2 — Sediment Sampling and Analysis.

3.6.1 Legal and Regulatory Requirements

The following presents an overview of the major laws and regulations that apply to hazardous waste of the East Span Project.

- Clean Water Act (CWA);
- Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA);
- Clean Air Act (CAA);

- National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS); and

- Various state environmental laws and regulations

In the project area, the State Water Quality Control Board, San Francisco Bay Region, administers federal, state, and local regulations for cleanup of affected surface water, groundwater, and soils that present a threat to water quality. However, the California Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) has taken responsibility for regulatory oversight of several of the cleanup actions on YBI. The California Occupational Safety and Health Agency (CalOSHA) has supervisory authority over hazardous substance and waste handling by workers during construction.

3.6.2 Existing Data Review

A review of the existing hazardous wastes reports and data was conducted to identify known or potential hazardous waste concerns that may be affected by the East Span Project alternatives. A summary of these reports can be found in the Hazardous Wastes Assessment.

3.6.3 Regulatory Database Search

Publicly available federal and state environmental databases were reviewed to obtain information on the location of potential sites of environmental concern that may adversely affect the project. These sites include registered underground storage tanks (USTs) and leaking underground storage tanks (LUSTs); facilities that use, generate, treat, or dispose of hazardous wastes and/or substances; transporters of hazardous wastes; solid waste landfill sites; and unauthorized spills and releases of regulated substances.

The database search area encompassed a distance that extended from 0.8 to 1.6 kilometers (0.5 to 1 mile) on either side of the project area, depending on the type of database listing. Databases reviewed for this report are described in the Hazardous Wastes Assessment.

3.6.4 Historical Information Update and Site Reconnaissance

An evaluation of historical land uses and land use changes in the project area was conducted to identify potential historical contaminant sources. This update included interviews with environmental specialists and current property owners, as well as a historical photographic review.

A site reconnaissance in the project area and vicinity was completed to identify and confirm potential contaminant sources identified in earlier data reviews and to identify potential unreported contaminant sources.

3.6.5 Potential Sources of Contamination

Potential contaminant sources that were identified through the existing data review were screened to determine their potential to conflict with the project based on the following criteria:

These criteria were used to eliminate potential sources that were unlikely to conflict with the project. Potential contaminant sources not eliminated during this screening process were recommended for further evaluation.

Table 3.6-1 lists potential contaminant sites on YBI and Table 3.6-2 summarizes the findings of the Oakland Touchdown area hazardous wastes assessment. Figures 3-15a and 3-15b in Appendix A show the locations of known or potential contaminant sources for YBI and the Oakland Touchdown area, respectively. The Navy occupies a significant portion of the project area on YBI. The Navy, as part of an Installation Restoration Program (IRP) for Naval Station Treasure Island (NSTI), established a Federal Facility Remediation Agreement among the Navy, the DTSC, and the San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB). Under this agreement, the Navy agreed to undertake and report on specified tasks associated with environmental assessment and response actions at 25 Installation Restoration (IR) sites under the IRP in accordance with CERCLA. Some of the IR sites are located on land transferred in October 2000 by FHWA from the Navy to Caltrans. With regard to those sites and subject to construction and safety considerations, Caltrans will provide access to the Navy for purposes of performing further testing and/or remediation.

Two of the potential contaminant sites are on the former Oakland Army Base, which is located in a highly industrialized area. Property adjacent to the former Oakland Army Base is used as a maritime shipping facility. An environmental baseline study has been conducted to document the physical condition of the former Oakland Army Base property resulting from the use, storage, and disposal of hazardous substances and petroleum products during the base’s history. It was recommended that further investigation be conducted in the area around Burma Road and the south side of the spit to determine the source and vertical and horizontal extent of the previously detected contamination.

In addition to the contaminant sites listed in Tables 3.6-1 and 3.6-2, lead contamination due to vehicle exhaust emissions of leaded gasoline can exist in materials next to freeways constructed prior to the ban of such fuels. In some locations, this contamination has been found at concentrations that are a potential hazard to human health and the environment if not handled correctly. The California Environmental Protection Agency, DTSC, has performed a health risk assessment of this material to determine its potential hazards and how these hazards can be reduced. As a result, DTSC granted Caltrans a variance to hazardous waste regulations that allows reuse of this material within the highway right of way under specific conditions.

Table 3.6-1 Known and Potential Contaminant Sources - (Yerba Buena Island)

Source Area

Identified Contaminants

IR 8 ­ Former Sludge Disposal Area

Surface soil contamination from metals (beryllium and lead) and from pesticides.

IR 11 ­ Former Landfill

Soil/Fill contamination from pesticides, metals, and petroleum hydrocarbons. Groundwater contamination from metals and petroleum hydrocarbons.

IR 13, Section E ­ Storm Water Off-shore Sediments

Contamination from storm water discharges. Off-shore sampling complete for Phase II Ecological Risk Assessment (analysis results pending).

IR 29 ­ East Side Contaminated Bridge Soils

Lead contamination of near-surface soils. Petroleum hydrocarbons detected in soil at select locations.

Building 204/208 LUST Site (both buildings have been demolished)

Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination from former gas station and adjacent fire station.

Building 270 LUST Site

Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination from active LUST site. Additional subsurface investigation pending.

Building 40 LUST Site

Petroleum hydrocarbon in groundwater. Possible upgradient (Site 270) source.

Fuel Delivery Lines near Building 213

Removal report documenting soil contamination from petroleum hydrocarbons and analytical testing is pending.

SFOBB Structure

Lead-based paint and asbestos.

Buildings to be demolished

Potential for lead-based paint and asbestos.

Source: Hazardous Wastes Assessment, 1998.

Table 3.6-2 Known and Potential Contaminant Sources -

Oakland Touchdown Area

Source Area

Contaminant

Bridge footings in eastern approach area

Soil: TRPH, PAHs, Pesticides, PCBs, and Pb

Groundwater: TRPH, Sb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Ag, and Ti

Army Site #1 ­ western end of Burma Road in Parcel 1

Soil: TPH as motor oil, and PCE

Army Site #2 ­ 456 m (1,500 ft) east of west end of Burma Road in Parcel 1

Soil: TPH as motor oil

Caltrans Maintenance Facility and undeveloped median area

Soil: PCBs, TPH, Pb, and VOCs

Groundwater: TPH, dissolved Pb, Sb, and Cr

Structure: Lead-based paint and asbestos

EBMUD Dechlorination Facility

Soil: Sodium Bisulfide

Former Landfill Area (southeast)

Soil: TPH, VOCs, SVOCs, and Pb

Groundwater: TPH and SVOCs

SFOBB Structure

Lead-based paint and asbestos

Ag = Silver
Cd = Cadmium
Cr = Chromium
Ni = Nickel
PAHs = Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons
Pb = Lead
PCBs = Polychlorinated Biphenyl
PCE = Tetrachloroethene
Sb = Antimony
SVOC = Semi-Volatile Organic Compound
Ti = Titanium
TPH = Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons
TRPH = Total Recoverable Petroleum Hydrocarbons
VOC = Volatile Organic Compound

Source: Hazardous Wastes Assessment, 1998

3.7 GEOLOGY, SOILS, AND SEISMICITY

3.7.1 Regional Geologic Setting

The project is located in the Coast Ranges geologic/geomorphic province of central and northern California. The Coast Ranges province extends from approximately 500 kilometers (300 miles) south and 400 kilometers (250 miles) north of the project site. The Coast Ranges province is bordered to the north by the Klamath Mountains, to the south by the Transverse Ranges province, to the west by the Pacific Ocean, and to the east by the Great Valley province.

The Coast Ranges have a general northwest orientation and are characterized by north-northwest trending folds and faults. The province consists of sedimentary, metamorphic, volcanic, and igneous rocks ranging in age from the Jurassic/Cretaceous age (100 to 200 million years ago) to the present.

The San Francisco Bay region is located within a northwesterly oriented geomorphic depression called the San Francisco Bay-Santa Clara Valley depression. This depression and its surrounding mountains all have relatively recent tectonic origin. Formation began about one million years ago (within the Quaternary age). The sea level has fluctuated significantly several times prior to and during Holocene times, and sediments known as Bay mud have been and are currently being deposited under estuarine conditions. The Bay mud consists of unconsolidated to moderately consolidated, saturated, organic-rich silty marine clays. (See Figure 3-16 in Appendix A for a geologic profile of the project area.)

3.7.2 Regional Seismic Setting and Seismicity

The San Francisco Bay Area is one of the more seismically active regions of California. There are at least seven active faults (San Andreas, Hayward, Rodgers Creek, Calaveras, Green Valley, Concord, and Franklin) within 50 kilometers (31 miles) of the project area. The active faults trend northwesterly and display a similar right-lateral, primarily horizontal movement. These faults have generated large historical earthquakes resulting in major surface disturbances, and segments of these faults have been designated as Special Earthquake Fault Zones by the California Division of Mines and Geology (Earthquake Fault Zoning Act). Numerous other smaller active faults are present throughout the region, but are farther from the project area and not believed to be capable of causing significant earthquake shaking within the project area.

The project area’s main geologic structures are associated with two major faults: the San Andreas fault about 14 kilometers (9 miles) to the west and the Hayward fault, which is located about 8 kilometers (5 miles) to the east of the study area. Both faults have had large historic earthquakes. Earthquakes on the San Andreas fault include the 7.8 magnitude (Richter Scale) earthquake on April 18, 1906, and the 7.1 magnitude (Richter Scale) Loma Prieta earthquake on October 17, 1989. These earthquakes caused widespread damage throughout the greater San Francisco Bay Area. The Hayward fault has long been documented as active, with major earthquakes in 1836 and 1868. A maximum credible earthquake (MCE) is the largest earthquake reasonably capable of occurring based on current geological knowledge. The MCE has been estimated for the San Andreas fault at 8 and 7-1/4 on the Hayward fault.

3.7.3 Geology and Geotechnical Conditions in the Project Area

Yerba Buena Island

YBI is a naturally occurring island approximately 57 hectares (142 acres) in size. The change in topography of the island is extreme, with steep slopes over short distances. The elevations range from 103 meters (338 feet) near the center of the island to sea level. Slopes range from 5 to 75 percent. The U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) land along the southeast shore occupies the flattest area of the island and has been enlarged through the placement of fill material.

The island is underlain by Franciscan Formation bedrock consisting of interbedded graywacke sandstone, mudstone, and claystone of varying proportions. On Yerba Buena Island (YBI), the majority of the Franciscan Formation is covered with unlithified sand and alluvial deposits, along with localized areas of artificial fill. There are several Franciscan Formation outcrops on YBI. The unconsolidated sedimentary deposits consist of silty sand with interbeds of clayey sand and clayey silt. Areas of artificial fill surrounding YBI, such as TI and part of the USCG station, were created by placing dredged Bay deposits and cut materials from YBI in relatively shallow water areas to create emergent usable pads.

Slope Stability. Existing landslides have been identified at various locations on YBI and appear to range from older, probably prehistoric, failures to recent failures. The modes of the slope failures include discontinuity-controlled rock failures (due to weakness in the rock), relatively deep-seated rotational landslides, and relatively surficial failures. Rock-wedge failures have occurred in the Franciscan Formation slopes surrounding the northeast point and eastern YBI tunnel approach. The sizes of the rock-wedge failures are variable and range up to in excess of 30 meters (100 feet) in width and length. Of most concern is a larger rock-wedge failure in the vicinity of the proposed west column for the northern alignments. Relatively deep-seated rotational landslides are located on the west and northwest of the eastern YBI tunnel approach area but appear to have occurred outside of the project study area. The landslides appear to be older and probably failed prehistorically. A number of relatively shallow slope failures are located in unconsolidated sedimentary deposits on the southwest slope of the eastern YBI tunnel approach above the USCG station. These landslides are up to 45 meters (150 feet) high, 61 meters (200 feet) wide, and 6 meters (20 feet) thick. Some of the landslides have occurred recently. Additional debris-flow failures and zones of shallow creeping soils have been identified in the Franciscan Formation on the northwest and southeast slopes of the eastern YBI tunnel approach and on the east and north facing slopes of the northeast point.

Portion of the Project Area in the Bay

In general, the area has a westerly thinning sequence of Holocene- and Pleistocene-age marine and alluvial sediments overlaying Franciscan Formation bedrock, which ranges from near the surface at YBI to over 100 meters (328 feet) below the Bay bottom near the Oakland Touchdown. The marine sediments are primarily clays and silts, while the alluvial sediments are more commonly sands. The Holocene- and Pleistocene-age sequence in some areas of the study area has been eroded by various episodes of channeling. In general, marine clays are thicker and the alluvial sands are thinner (or absent) within buried paleochannels.

Oakland Touchdown

The eastern approach to the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge (SFOBB) sits on a man-made spit that extends out into San Francisco Bay. The site is generally flat, rising approximately 1.5 to 3 meters (5 to 10 feet) above sea level. The area is a former tidal flat that was filled prior to the construction of the existing SFOBB in the 1930s. The source of the fill is not known, but was likely a combination of dredged soil and imported fill, including some rubble and other debris. Due to the fill, settlement of the underlying Young Bay Mud has likely occurred, creating mud that is stronger than its nearby marine counterpart.

The Franciscan Formation in this area is deep (an elevation of -135 to -150 meters [-440 to -500 feet]) and slopes gently to the east/southeast. A sequence of Holocene- and Pleistocene-age marine and alluvial sediments overlie the bedrock. The subsurface soils vary and consist of generally less than 3 meters (10 feet) of loose, sandy fill that is underlain by a very soft, saturated layer of Bay mud that extends down to approximately 12 meters (40 feet)., In other areas, the soil is composed of coarser grain sediments that include various amounts of gravel. The primary material in the underlying Merritt-Posey-San Antonio Formation at the Oakland Touchdown is a layer of dense sand of approximately 4.5 to 6.1 meters (15 to 20 feet) thick. A north-south trending paleochannel exists under the Oakland Touchdown area. This paleochannel does not appear to contain alluvial sands.

3.7.4 Tsunamis

Tsunamis are seismically induced "sea waves" that are generated when large subsea earth or rock masses are displaced during earthquakes or very large landslides. The low-amplitude very-long-period waves travel very quickly and increase significantly in size and height upon entering shallow water. The waves can cause significant damage to coastal areas.

A map prepared in 1972 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), entitled "Maps Showing Areas of Potential Inundation by Tsunamis in the San Francisco Bay Region, California," indicates that the Oakland Touchdown area would be inundated with about 3.1 to 3.7 meters (10 to 12 feet) of water if a 6.1-meter (20-foot) wave were to occur at the Golden Gate. (A 6.1-meter [20-foot] wave approximates the run-up that occurred at Crescent City, California, due to the 1964 Alaska earthquake.) Given the hypothetical nature of the information, it is likely the inundation level at the Oakland Touchdown area would be lower, at a level closer to 1 meter (3.3 feet).

According to the USGS map, the portion of the bridge on YBI would not be inundated by a 6.1-meter (20-foot) tsunami, although lower-lying fill areas such as the USCG station could be subject to damage.

3.8 WATER RESOURCES AND QUALITY

3.8.1 Regulatory Setting

Federal

The point source discharge of any pollutants to Waters of the U.S. is regulated under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Program. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) administers the NPDES program throughout the nation, and it has given regulatory authority to those states with a local regulatory body. (See State discussion below for further details.)

Section 401 of the Federal Clean Water Act (FCWA) applies to the SFOBB East Span Project. Under the Section 401 Water Quality Certification Program, every applicant for a federal permit or license for an activity which may result in a discharge into a water body must request state certification that the proposed activity will not violate state and federal water quality standards.

State

In the State of California, under the Porter-Cologne Water Quality Control Act, the State Water Resources Control Board has the ultimate authority over state water rights and water quality policy. The NPDES program in California is implemented by the State Water Resources Control Board through its nine Regional Water Quality Control Boards (RWQCBs) (also established under the Porter-Cologne Act).

A NPDES permit is required for any proposed point source waste or storm water discharges from municipal areas with populations of 100,000 or more to surface waters and from construction activities disturbing 2 hectares (5 acres) or more of land. Caltrans District 4 currently operates under statewide NPDES Permit No. CAS000003, which covers all Caltrans activities, including those within the boundaries of RWQCB’s jurisdiction. As a result, the East Span Project is covered under this NPDES permit.

The RWQCB has adopted a Water Quality Control Plan for the San Francisco Bay Basin (Basin Plan), which sets forth water quality objectives to protect and enhance the beneficial uses of the Bay and its tributaries. Beneficial uses of the waters in San Francisco Bay include commercial and sport fishing, estuarine habitat, industrial service and process supply, fish migration, navigation, preservation of rare and endangered species, recreation, shellfish harvesting, fish spawning, and wildlife habitat. Water quality objectives, which can be narrative or measurable, include parameters such as bacteria, bioaccumulation, biostimulatory substances, color, dissolved oxygen, floating material, oil and grease, population and community ecology, pH, salinity, sediment, suspended material, settleable material, sulfide, temperature, toxicity, turbidity, and un-ionized ammonia. Some of the objectives are listed in Table 3.8-3 along with the Central Bay’s status in regard to the objectives.

The RWQCB administers Section 401 of the Federal Clean Water Act, as described above. The RWQCB issues certifications that proposed projects will not violate state and federal water quality standards. Caltrans will obtain a Water Quality Certification for this project from the RWQCB prior to project construction.

3.8.2 Existing Drainage Patterns and Water Quality

The San Francisco Bay has a drainage area of many thousand square kilometers. It is the primary point of outfall to the Pacific Ocean for a large portion of California.

Flood Flows

Flood flows are not defined beneath the SFOBB. The influence of flood flows on the project area is minimal because of its location in relation to the tributary streams to San Francisco Bay.

Tidal Influences

Central San Francisco Bay, in the vicinity of the East Span Project, is influenced by the tides of the Bay. The frequency and height of tides throughout the Bay have been estimated by the ACOE. Table 3.8-1 summarizes the tidal elevations for the Bay, as measured at two tide measuring stations in the project area.

Table 3.8-1 High Tide Elevation

 

Station

 

Matson Wharfa

Yerba Buena Islanda

Frequency

metersb,c

feetb,c

metersb,c

feetb,c

10-year

1.80

5.9

1.80

5.9

50-year (interpolated)

1.89

6.2

1.89

6.2

100-year

1.92

6.3

1.92

6.3

100-year (adopted)

1.98

6.5

1.98

6.5

500-year

2.01

6.6

2.01

6.6

Source: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1984.

a Matson Wharf (Station 4779) is located in the Oakland Touchdown area. The YBI station is Station 4782.

b Elevations per NGVD (National Geodetic Vertical Datum).

c To estimate elevations above mean lower low water, add an additional 0.896 meter (2.94 feet) to the values in the table.

The high tide elevations presented in Table 3.8-1 are based on historical tidal data. The EPA and other agencies believe that concentrations of atmospheric gases will continue to increase in the coming decades, resulting in global warming and subsequent thermal expansion, which will cause the sea level to rise. The ACOE has made an attempt to adjust the predicted tidal elevations based on historical data to include this expected increase in sea level. Table 3.8-2 shows high tide elevations that have been adjusted for expected increases in sea level.

Table 3.8-2 Tidal Elevations Including Estimated Sea Level Rise

 

Planning Year

 

Year 2000

Year 2050

Frequency

meters

feet

meters

feet

10-year

1.89-1.92

6.2-6.3

2.32-2.60

7.6-8.53

50-year (interpolated)

1.98-2.01

6.5-6.6

2.41-2.69

7.90-8.83

100-year

2.01-2.04

6.6-6.7

2.44-2.72

8.00-8.92

100-year (adopted)a

2.07-2.10

6.8-6.9

2.50-2.78

8.20-9.12

500-year

2.10-2.13

6.9-7.0

2.53-2.84

8.30-9.33

Source: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1984.

Notes: Year 2000 estimated rise 0.09-0.12 meter (0.3-0.4 foot); Year 2050 estimated rise 0.52-0.80 meter (1.7-2.6 feet).

Elevations per NGVD (National Geodetic Vertical Datum).

a The values presented in the table are from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Data from the San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission can also be extrapolated to obtain tidal elevation values for the planning years 2000 and 2050. These values would be 2.04 meters (6.7 feet) for the year 2000 and 2.19 meters (7.2 feet) for the year 2050. These lower values were used in the design planning process for the East Span Project.

Surface Water Quality

The surface water body in the project area is the Central San Francisco Bay, which connects to the Pacific Ocean through the Golden Gate Channel. Surface runoff from the project area flows directly or indirectly into the Central San Francisco Bay. The surface runoff is composed of freeway runoff from the SFOBB and I-80 and the SFOBB Toll Plaza, urban runoff from adjacent streets, and the land runoff from adjacent industrial sites and open areas. Other discharges to the Central San Francisco Bay include discharges from municipal wastewater treatment plants, discharges from dredging operations, and discharges from other industrial processes.

Since 1993, surface water quality throughout the estuary (San Francisco Bay) has been evaluated by the Regional Monitoring Program (RMP). The San Francisco Estuary Institute (SFEI), a non-profit scientific organization established in 1983, was chosen by the RWQCB and Bay Area dischargers to administer the program. The RMP is funded by Bay Area dischargers as well as federal and state agencies. The YBI station is located in the project area. In addition, three other stations are located in the vicinity of the project study area. These stations are: Alameda Station, located upstream of the project area; Point Isabel Station, located downstream of the project area toward the Central Bay; and Horseshoe Bay Station, located downstream of the project area toward the Golden Gate Channel.

The SFEI 1996 Annual Report covers the fourth year of the RMP. The results for the 1996 study period indicate that, in general, there are water quality variations from season to season. Table 3.8-3 presents a summary of the concentrations of various pollutants in the Central Bay monitored in 1996.

Table 3.8-3 Central San Francisco Bay Surface Water Concentrations

 

Pollutant

Range of

Concentrations

RWQCB Water Quality Objective

Salinity

5-32 parts per thousand

Controllable water quality factors shall not increase salinity of waters so as to adversely affect beneficial uses.

Total Suspended Solids

2-25 µg/L

Waters shall not contain suspended material in concentrations that cause nuisance or adversely affect beneficial uses.

Dissolved Organic Carbon

960-3,840 µg/L

No objective

Nutrients:

   

ammonia

10.92-159.46 µg/L

Annual mean 0.025 mg/L, maximum 0.16 mg/L

nitrite

185.64-487.34 µg/L

No objective

nitrate

9.24-58.8 µg/L

No objective

phosphate

59.83-207.7 µg/L

No objective

Trace Elements:

   

arsenic

1.5-2.1 µg/L

4-day average 36.0 µg/L, 1-hour average 69.0 µg/L

cadmium

0.03-0.10 µg/L

4-day average 9.3 µg/L, 1-hour average 43.0 µg/L

chromium

0.1-3 µg/L

4-day average 50.0 µg/L, 1-hour average 1100.0 µg/L

copper

0.4-3.3 µg/L

1-hour average 4.9 µg/L

lead

0.05-0.9 µg/L

4-day average 5.6 µg/L, 1-hour average 140.0 µg/L

nickel

0.5-7 µg/L

24-hour average 7.1 µg/L, instantaneous 140.0 µg/L

zinc

0.3-8 µg/L

24-hour average 58.0 µg/L, instantaneous 170.0 µg/L

Note: µg/L = microgram per liter

Source: Caltrans District 4, April 1998.

3.8.3 Groundwater

The east end of the project, at the Oakland Touchdown, lies over the East Bay Plain groundwater basin in Alameda County. Existing and potential beneficial uses as designated in the San Francisco Bay Basin Water Quality Control Plan for this regional basin include municipal and domestic water supply, industrial service water supply, industrial process water supply, and agricultural water supply. The East Bay Plain extends over an area of 295 square kilometers (114 square miles), with an average depth to aquifer below land surface ranging between 8 meters (25 feet) and 183 meters (596 feet), and a storage capacity of 3.4 billion cubic meters (2,770,000 acre-feet).

3.9 NATURAL RESOURCES

This section addresses existing vegetative communities and associated wildlife, special status plant and wildlife species, special aquatic sites, wetlands, and non-wetland waters of the United States that occur in the project area. Detailed survey information is provided in the Natural Environment Study and Biological Assessment.

3.9.1 Regulatory Setting

Natural resources in the project area were evaluated in accordance with the provisions of state and federal environmental statutes and regulations, including the following:

3.9.2 Vegetative Communities and Wildlife

Most of the terrestrial vegetation within the project area consists of non-native plant species. Patches of native vegetation occur on Yerba Buena Island (YBI) and include coast live oak woodland, and northern coastal scrub. The Oakland Touchdown area consists primarily of ruderal vegetation, occurring at the former Oakland Army Base property. Small patches of northern foredune and landscaped vegetation occur along the north side of the Oakland Touchdown area. Figures 3-17 and 3-18 in Appendix A show the habitat types found on YBI and in the Oakland Touchdown area, respectively. Terrestrial vegetative communities and associated wildlife species are summarized below.

Landscaped Non-Native Plant Communities

Typical landscaped species found on YBI include Tasmanian blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus), German ivy (Senecio mikanioides), and Monterey cypress (Cupressus macrocarpa). Native plant species are largely excluded from these areas because of a lack of light due to the density of the overstory canopy, accumulation of debris from overstory trees, human disturbance, and poor soil conditions. Ornamental landscape species at the Oakland Touchdown include iceplant (Carpobrotus edulis), Monterey pine (Pinus radiata), and acacia (Acacia spp.). Landscaped areas are not considered to be sensitive habitat for plant or wildlife species. Common wildlife species that occur in landscaped areas include the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris), house sparrow (Passer domesticus), Anna’s hummingbird (Calpte anna), Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), and raccoon (Procyon lotor).

Ruderal Vegetation

Areas that have been heavily disturbed contain ruderal vegetation generally characterized by herbaceous, non-woody species. Ruderal vegetation occurs at the Oakland Touchdown area on the former Oakland Army Base property and at scattered sites along the north side of the existing roadway. These areas provide winter roosting areas for shorebird species during high tides. Some of the shorebird species known to use these areas include western sandpiper (Calidris mauri), semipalmated plover (Charadrius semipalmatus), and dunlin (Calidris alpina).

Coast Live Oak Woodland

Only a few tree and shrub species associated with coast live oak woodland occur in small patches on YBI, near Macalla Road. Species present include toyon (Heteromeles arbutifolia), blue elderberry (Sambucus mexicanus), California hazelnut (Corylus cornuta), and a few California buckeye (Aesculus californica). Understory plant species observed include native species such as poison oak (Toxicodendron diversilobum) and California blackberry (Rubus ursinus). Non-native plant species observed within the coast live oak woodland include German ivy, Himalayan blackberry (Rubus discolor), and Tasmanian blue gum.

Typical wildlife species associated with coast live oak woodland include northern flicker (Colaptes auratus), mourning dove (Zenaida macroura), western gray squirrel (Sciurus griseus), western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis), and gopher snake (Pitouphis melanoleucus). The black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), a species protected under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, nests and roosts on YBI woodland.

Northern Coastal Scrub

A few patches of northern coastal scrub occur on steep bluffs along the east end of YBI. The dominant plant species in this area is California sagebrush (Artemisia californica). Common plant species include farinosa dudleya (Dudleya farinosa), yarrow (Achillea millefolium), and seaside woolly sunflower (Eriophyllum staechadifolium). Wildlife species that could be expected to occur in coastal scrub habitat include white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys), bewick’s wren (Thryomanes bewickii), and vagrant shrew (Sorex vagrans).

Northern Foredunes

A patch of northern foredunes is located on the northern shoreline of the Oakland Touchdown area at Radio Point Beach. The dominant plant species include beach bur (Ambrosia chamissonis), fig-marigold (Carpobrotius edulis), commonly known as iceplant, and saltgrass. A band of marsh gumplant (Grindelia stricta var. angustifolia), a California Native Plant Society (CNPS) List 4 species, occurs in a depression behind the foredune area. This area is bound by potential jurisdictional wetlands and large patches of fig-marigold.

3.9.3 Estuarine Environment and Associated Species

The San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge (SFOBB) is located in the Central Bay Segment of the San Francisco Bay Estuary. The estuary is commonly divided into several segments (listed from north to south): Suisun Bay, Carquinez Strait, San Pablo Bay, Central Bay, and South Bay. The San Francisco Bay Estuary sits at the terminus of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, a system that drains 40 percent of the land area of California. The San Francisco Bay Estuary and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta together form one of the largest estuarine systems in North America. Aquatic habitats in the estuary range from deep channel bottoms to shallow marsh pools.

Several species of waterfowl use this habitat in the winter months, including lesser scaup (Aythya affinis), surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata), and canvasback (Aythya valisineria). Other avian species that are often observed in the project area include brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) and western gull (Larus occidentalis). A common marine mammal found foraging in the project area is the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina).

Northern Coastal Salt Marsh

A small narrow band of northern coastal salt marsh occurs on the north side of YBI adjacent to Clipper Cove. A narrow strip of this habitat also occurs along the north side of Radio Point Beach, adjacent to the Oakland Touchdown. Dominant plant species found in northern coastal salt marshes include pickleweed (Salicornia virginica) and saltgrass (Distichilis spicata). Animals that have the potential to occur within coastal salt marsh vegetation include the northern salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris), a federally endangered species. However, the northern salt marsh harvest mouse does not occur at Clipper Cove or Radio Point Beach because the isolated, narrow band of habitat is not sufficient to support even a small population.

This vegetative community also occurs within the Emeryville Crescent outside the project area. Salt marsh habitat along the Emeryville Crescent provides important breeding and foraging habitat for a variety of migratory and resident wildlife species, including the saltmarsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris). Migratory bird species common to salt marsh habitat include northern pintail (Anas acuta), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), least sandpiper (Calidris minutilla), and willet (Catoptrophorus semipalmatus). Resident species that commonly use this habitat include great blue heron (Ardea herodias), marsh wren (Cistothorus palustris), red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), California clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus), and California red-backed vole (Clethrionomys californicus).

Intertidal Sand Flats

Intertidal flats occur on the north shore of the Oakland Touchdown and adjacent to the USCG facility at YBI. These areas have a larger grain size (>0.6 millimeter [0.02 inch]) than is typical of mudflats (<0.1 millimeter [0.004 inch]), and are more accurately described as sand flats. These intertidal flats have rivulets and channeling which are attributes of sand flats and not mudflats. The larger grain size of sand flats is due to higher wave energy. Both sand flats and mudflats are special aquatic sites protected under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act.

Sand flats are sparsely vegetated intertidal areas that occur from approximately mean lower low water (MLLW) to mean tide level (MTL) and are exposed at low tides and inundated at high tides. They provide protection to banks and upland shoreline from wave energy and sediment. Sand flats around San Francisco Bay provide habitat for many species of invertebrates, including diatoms, polychaetes, oligochaetes, amphipods, isopods and crustaceans. During low tide, sand flats provide foraging and roosting areas for nearly one million shorebirds that utilize the Bay during spring and fall migration. Shorebirds present in the project area include western sandpiper (Calidris mauri), least sandpiper (Calidris minutilla), dunlin (Calidris alpina), long- and short-billed dowitcher (Limnodromus griseus, and L. scolopaceus, respectively), and American avocet (Recurvirostra americana). The habitat value of the sand flats in the project area is diminished by the abrupt transition with adjacent uplands and the lack of adjacent wetland habitats. The existing shoreline adjacent to the sand flats at the Oakland Touchdown is protected with rock riprap and the uplands are landscaped with non-native vegetation.

During high tide, sand flats provide foraging habitat for fish, including longfin smelt (Spirinchus thaleichthys), staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus), starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus), and leopard shark (Triakis semifasciata). One of the few mammals that are occasionally present on sand flats is the Pacific harbor seal (Phoca vitulina).

Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.)

Eelgrass beds occur in some of the shallow waters within the project area at the Oakland Touchdown and at Clipper Cove and the Coast Guard facility at YBI. Eelgrass provides important nursery habitat and protection for many fish and invertebrate species, including herring. In addition, avian species are often observed foraging among vegetated shallows.

Eelgrass is typically present on shallow, gradually sloping sand, sand/mud, and sand/shell debris habitats. Eelgrass beds stabilize shorelines by dampening the wave energy that transports sediment to and from the shore, preventing erosion. They also improve water quality by collecting and filtering organic matter and sediments. This filtering acts as a nutrient pump, transferring waterborne nutrients to the sediments and invertebrates. Eelgrass is easily affected by changes in water quality and turbidity. It is extremely dynamic, expanding and contracting by as much as several hectares per season, depending on the quality of the site. Consequently, eelgrass beds can serve as an indicator community for the overall health of an estuary.

Open Water

The SFOBB is located in the Central Bay segment of the San Francisco Bay Estuary. The Central Bay is generally marine in character with waters that are cold, saline, and low in total suspended sediment. This section of the estuary is strongly influenced by tidal currents, due to its proximity to the Pacific Ocean. Fish swim through the Central Bay on their way to and from the entrapment zone, an area in the northern part of the Bay where fresh water flows from the Delta mix with brackish water flows from the estuary, trapping sediment and phytoplankton in the water column.

Fisheries. Several species of anadromous, marine, and estuarine species use the Bay/Delta for part of their life cycle. Anadromous species in the Central Bay, such as the native chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), migrate through the open water areas of the Bay on their way to and from the tributaries of the Delta. Many marine species commonly found along the Pacific coast are found in the San Francisco Bay, including commercially and recreationally important Pacific herring (Clupea harengeus), and 15 species managed by federal fisheries management plans and provided protection under the Essential Fish Habitat regulations promulgated by the Magnuson-Stevens Act. (See Table 3.9-1 for a list of the managed species.)

Table 3.9-1 Managed Fish Species Found in Central San Francisco Bay

Common Name

Scientific Name

Abundance

Northern anchovy

Engraulis mordax

Primary

Pacific sardine

Sardinops asgax caerulrus

Tertiary

Chinook salmon

Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

Secondary

English sole

Parophrys vetulus

Primary

Pacific sanddab

Citharichtys sordidus

Primary

Rex sole

Glyptocephalus zachirus

Tertiary

Sand sole

Psettichthys melanostictus

Tertiary

Starry flounder

Platichthys stallatus

Secondary

Leopard shark

Triakis semifasciata

Secondary

Big skate

Raja binoculata

Tertiary

Spiny dogfish

Squalis acanthias

Tertiary

Brown rockfish

Sebastes auriculatus

Secondary

Calico rockfish

Sebastes dallii

Tertiary

Cabezon

Scorpaenichttys marmoratus

Tertiary

Lingcod

Ophidodon elongatus

Tertiary

Notes: Primary = Species readily identifiable and common (in at least 1 percent of catch).

Secondary = Readily identifiable to species and uncommon (in less than 1 percent of

catch).

Tertiary = Identification questionable or uncommon or rare in catch.

Source: Biological Assessment, June 1999.

Plankton. Phytoplankton in the San Francisco Bay Estuary are consumed by organisms, including clams, worms, mussels, and shrimp-like zooplankton called copepods. Zooplankton, in turn, are consumed by a variety of fish species and are especially important to the survival of juvenile fish. Important species of zooplankton in the Central Bay include the ghost shrimp and the shrimp-like euphausiids, commonly known as krill. A combination of factors, including water depth and transparency, river inflow, and freshwater export from the Delta, influence the ability of phytoplankton to receive adequate light for photosynthesis. These factors influence the productivity and concentrations of phytoplankton throughout the various regions of the Bay. Phytoplankton levels in the Central Bay generally remain low due to the high degree of tidal water exchange and mixing. However, diatoms may become abundant in the Central and South Bays because of changes in micro and macro nutrients, turbidity, light penetration, water temperature, wave-action, cloudiness, tidal mixing, and filtering organisms.

Benthos. Benthic organisms are filter feeders that strain phytoplankton and detritus from the water column and graze on nutrients that fall to the bottom sediment. A broad range of species is commonly found in the Bay along intertidal flats, the bottom of open water areas, and on hard surfaces below the intertidal zone. Some benthic organisms, such as worms, burrow into the bottom sediment and others, such as oysters, crabs, flat worms, and copepods, live on the sediment surface. Others, including mussels, live on hard surfaces such as rocks and pilings. Existing submerged bridge structures and rocky outcrops may provide substrate for benthic invertebrates, including the bay mussel.

3.9.4 Wetlands and Waters of the United States

Wetland resources in the project study area include "special aquatic sites" regulated by the Army Corps of Engineers (ACOE) under Section 404 of the federal Clean Water Act and Waters of the U.S. regulated under Section 10 of the Rivers and Harbors Act. Special aquatic sites found in the project area include non-tidal wetlands, tidal wetlands, sand flats, and eelgrass beds. A delineation of jurisdictional wetlands, as defined by the ACOE, was conducted in the project area. Potential jurisdictional wetlands were delineated in the field using methods outlined in the 1987 ACOE Wetland Delineation Manual. Jurisdictional wetlands are defined when three conditions exist: 1) presence of hydric soils, 2) presence of saturated, inundated or ponded/flooded hydrologic conditions during the growing season, and 3) presence of hydrophytic vegetation. Special aquatic sites and waters of the U.S. in the project area are shown on Figures 3-19 and 3-20 in Appendix A. The following is a description of the wetlands, mudflats, eelgrass beds, and waters of the U.S. in the project area.

Wetlands

Wetlands possess unique functions and values that vary depending on the type of wetland, its size, surrounding land uses, and the degree to which it has been previously disturbed. Wetland functions are defined as the physical, chemical, and biological attributes of a wetland, such as flood storage, species habitat, or groundwater discharge. Other functions of wetlands may have specific "values" that are considered beneficial to society, such as groundwater recharge, recreation, or aesthetics. Each wetland type was evaluated separately to determine general wetland functions and values. The following are standard functions used to assess each wetland type:

The total area of jurisdictional wetlands in the project area is 0.07 hectare (0.18 acre).

There are five wetland sites in the project area. One tidal wetland site is a narrow strip located along the high tide line of Radio Point Beach. Approximately 0.01 hectare (0.03 acre) of this wetland is within the project area and another 0.01 hectare (0.03 acre) extends outside of the project area to the northeast. Vegetation in this area consists of saltgrass (Distichlis spicata) and searocket (Cakile maritima), both hydrophytic plants that are considered wetland indicator species. This vegetation is growing at or slightly above the high tide line. A muted tidal wetland occurs behind the foredune area outside of the project area (wetland sample point B-1 shown on Figure 3-20 in Appendix A). Two small non-tidal wetland areas occur within the project area on Port of Oakland property, located just south of the existing highway. One wetland area at this site is 0.03 hectare (0.07 acre) and includes rabbit foot grass (Polypogon monspeliensis), a wetland indicator species. This site appears to have been recently used for construction staging and storage, and it is likely that the topographic depression was created by these activities. West of this site there is another non-tidal wetland area also located on Port of Oakland property. This wetland is 0.02 hectare (0.05 acre) and consists of wetland indicator species, including brass buttons (Cotula coronopifolia), sourclover (Melitotus indica), and rabbit foot grass.

Another small band of tidal wetlands occurs on the north side of YBI (see Figure 3-19 in Appendix A). This wetland band extends for approximately 90 meters (295 feet) along the high-tide line and is approximately 1 meter (3.28 feet) wide. The total wetland area is approximately 0.01 hectare (0.03 acre). Wetland vegetation in this area is comprised of pickleweed, fat hen (Atriplex triangulars), and saltgrass. This wetland area is described as northern coastal salt marsh in Section 3.9.3 — Estuarine Environment and Associated Species.

""The tidal wetlands present in the project study area are predominantly remnant wetlands surrounded by non-native species. Compared to the tidal wetlands located in the Emeryville Crescent, tidal wetlands in the project area do not provide extensive habitat for wildlife and, therefore, their functions and values are limited. The non-tidal wetland areas are also characterized by limited functions and values due to human disturbance and lack of wetland species diversity. The non-tidal wetlands are unlikely to provide habitat for wildlife species.

Sand Flats

Sand flats were delineated and are present in the project area between the Mean High Water (MHW) line, elevation 0.8 meter (2.7 feet) NGVD, and the MLLW. The lower limits of the sand flats were determined from aerial photographs taken during approximately a ­0.85 tide. The upper limits of the sand flats were determined in the field using GPS equipment.

Within the project area, sand flats occur along the north side of the Oakland Touchdown area at the eastern bridge abutment and east of the USCG station on YBI. Approximately 2.1 hectares (5.1 acres) of sand flats are located between Radio Point Beach and the eastern bridge abutment. These sand flat areas provide a moderate level of functions and values as foraging habitat for a variety of bird species. The functions and values of sand flats are discussed in more detail in Section 3.9.3 — Estuarine Environment and Associated Species.

Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.)

Preliminary surveys of eelgrass habitat in the project area were conducted in 1997 and 1998. More detailed surveys were conducted in 1999 and 2000 (a pre-construction survey only for Replacement Alternative N-6). Eelgrass beds were surveyed in the field during Mean Low Water (MLW) when the potential for observing the edge of eelgrass beds or individual stands is easiest. Fathometer surveys and bottom grab samples were taken when eelgrass was not visible from the water surface or when visibility was otherwise not suitable to determine eelgrass distribution. Eelgrass beds are present in the San Francisco Bay Estuary from Mean Lower Low Water (MLLW), elevation -0.9 meter (2.9 feet) National Geodetic Vertical Datum (NGVD), to 1.5 meters (5 feet) below MLW. Eelgrass survey methods included use of specialized acoustic (sonar) equipment to locate and map the occurrence of the eelgrass beds. Divers were used to verify the sonar readings, determine eelgrass bed density, and the density of the existing grass shoots.

Locations of eelgrass beds are shown on Figures 3-17 and 3-18 in Appendix A. The eelgrass beds in the project vicinity totaled approximately 16.4 hectares (40.6 acres) at the time of the October 1999 surveys. Approximately 0.7 hectares (1.8 acres) occur adjacent to YBI and approximately 15.7 hectares (38.8 acres) occur north of the Oakland Touchdown area.

The most extensive eelgrass beds were identified north of the Oakland Touchdown. The distribution of these eelgrass beds extends in depths ranging from about 1.1 to 1.5 meters (3.5 to 5.0 feet) and has exhibited dramatic fluctuations in size and density from year to year. Eelgrass beds in this area are patchy, occurring within 3.0 to 4.6 meters (10 to 15 feet) of each other. Approximately 2,493 individual eelgrass patches were recorded in this area during the 1999 surveys with patches varying from 1.5 to 3.6 meters (5 to 12 feet) in diameter.

Four eelgrass bed areas were identified near YBI, two within Clipper Cove on the north side of YBI, and two within Coast Guard Cove on the south side of YBI. Eelgrass beds in these areas occur along the edges of the shoreline and extend to areas no greater in depth than 1.1 to 1.5 meters (3.5 to 5.0 feet).

Eelgrass is easily affected by environmental factors such as changes in water quality and turbidity. This habitat type is extremely dynamic, expanding and contracting by as much as several hectares per season, depending on the quality of the site and environmental factors.

Waters of the U.S

Waters of the U.S. within the study area include "waters…that are subject to the ebb and flow of the tide shoreward to the Mean High Water mark" that are used to transport interstate or foreign commerce, as described under Section 10 of the Rivers and Harbors Act (33 Code of Federal Regulation Part 322.2). The project area is bisected by a navigation opening that is under the jurisdiction of the USCG. Section 10 jurisdiction extends to the MHW mark on the north and south sides of the SFOBB. Section 404 jurisdiction extends to the High-tide Line (HTL) on the north and south sides of the bridge. Impacts to special aquatic sites, including sand flats and eelgrass beds, are regulated under Section 404 of the Federal Clean Water Act.

3.9.5 Jurisdiction of the Bay Conservation and Development Commission

Under the McAteer-Petris Act, the San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission (BCDC) has jurisdiction over all areas of the Bay that are subject to tidal action. BCDC’s San Francisco Bay jurisdiction includes subtidal areas, intertidal areas, and tidal marsh areas that are between mean high tide and 1.5 meters (5 feet) above mean sea level. In addition, BCDC has jurisdiction over a 30.5-meter (100-foot) shoreline band surrounding the Bay from the mean high tide line. For the SFOBB project, the area subject to BCDC jurisdiction includes the shoreline on YBI and on the Oakland Touchdown. BCDC’s jurisdiction does not extend to federally owned areas such as the Navy or USCG property on YBI, because they are excluded from state coastal zones pursuant to the Coastal Zone Management Act.

3.9.6 Plants and Wildlife

This section identifies special status plant and wildlife species protected under the federal and state Endangered Species Acts with potential to occur in the vicinity of the project area, as documented by lists compiled from various sources. Based on those lists, surveys of the habitat in the project area were conducted, and consultations with biologists were completed to identify specific species and habitats potentially impacted by the project alternatives. Many of the species identified through these sources have the potential to occur within the greater regional area but are not present within the project area due to the lack of suitable habitat. This section also identifies certain wildlife species that are known to occur within the project area and are protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, the Magnuson-Stevens Act, or the Marine Mammal Protection Act. Tables 3.9-2 and 3.9-3, at the end of this section, provide a comprehensive list of the species discussed below.

Plants

A list of special status plant species, shown in Table 3.9-2, contains 42 species that have the potential to occur in the East Span Project area. This list was compiled based on the list of species provided by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in its letter of August 29, 1997 (see Appendix G for a copy of the letter), a literature review, a review of the California Natural Diversity Database (CNDDB), and California Native Plant Society’s (CNPS’s) Inventory Database. The CNPS is an independent organization that reviews and maintains information on rare native plants in California. In an effort to categorize degrees of concern for rare plants, the CNPS developed four lists which indicate rarity and status descriptions of endangered plants. The first two categories, List 1B and List 2, indicate plants that could qualify for listing as rare, threatened, or endangered. List 3 includes plants for which more information is needed to classify them. The List 4 category includes plants of limited distribution that are considered important species locally.

Surveys for plants were conducted in Fall 1997 and Spring 1998 to assess the known and potential occurrence of threatened and endangered species. Survey dates were selected to optimize the likelihood of observing target species during their blooming period. While plant species have the potential to occur in the project area, results of the surveys indicate that only the marsh gumplant occurs in the project area. A brief description of the marsh gumplant is provided below.

Marsh Gumplant (Grindelia stricta). Marsh gumplant is included on List 4 of the CNPS Inventory. It has no federal or state status; however, it is considered to be locally significant and has been included in the CNPS list of species which have limited distribution (List 4). This species was observed during botanical surveys on the northern portion of the YBI and the Oakland Touchdown.

Wildlife

A list of special status species and their legal status are provided in Table 3.9-3. This table contains species that could possibly be found in the vicinity of the East Span Project area. These species were compiled based on the list of species provided by the USFWS and NMFS, a literature review, and a review of the CNDDB. Only the wildlife species described below have the potential to occur in the project area because suitable or marginally suitable supporting habitat is present. All migratory bird species such as western gulls, peregrine falcons, and double-crested cormorants are protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act.

Surveys for wildlife and aquatic species were not conducted for this project, given the availability of information from previous studies, including avian surveys, entomology field surveys, reptile and amphibian surveys, and marine mammal studies. A brief description of wildlife species known to occur in the project area is provided below.

Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina). Harbor seals are protected from harassment under the Federal Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended. Foraging sites are generally close to shore where medium-sized fish in addition to bivalves, crab, octopus, herring, and squid are taken as prey. Harbor seals use the south side of YBI as a haul-out site year-round. This site is located approximately 305 meters (1,000 feet) from the nearest construction limit boundary.

California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus). Like the harbor seal, the California sea lion is protected by the Federal Marine Mammal Protection Act. While little information is available on the foraging patterns of California sea lions in the Bay, individual sea lions have been observed on a fairly regular basis in the shipping channel to the south of YBI. Individuals have also been sighted in the waters east of YBI. Pier 39 in San Francisco, about 6 kilometers (4 miles) from the project site, has become a haul-out site for sea lions. Most of the sea lions hauled out at this site are males and no pupping has been observed.

Gray Whale (Eschrichtius robustus). Protected under the Marine Mammal Protection Act, the gray whale has been sighted more frequently in recent years in San Francisco Bay. Reduced food supply in the Bering Sea has been suspected as the most probable cause. Sightings have included areas off Sausalito in Richardson Bay and the tip of the Tiburon Peninsula (approximately 11 kilometers [7 miles] northwest of the project area) and as far south as the San Bruno Shoals area (approximately 23 kilometers [14 miles] southwest of the project area). Gray whales have been observed foraging in these areas. Observations have typically been during the months from December to March, during their winter migration north to Alaska and the Bering Straits.

American Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus anatum). Two pairs of peregrine falcons nest and roost on the SFOBB. One pair nests on the West Span and one pair on the East Span. Courtship behavior and other nesting activities can begin as early as December for these pairs. Eggs are usually laid in early March, and the young generally fledge in the third week of May. This species has been removed from federal listing, but is still protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act and the California Endangered Species Act (CESA).

Saltmarsh Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas sinuosa). The saltmarsh common yellowthroat inhabits fresh and brackish wetland areas as well as upland habitat throughout the San Francisco Bay Area. Saltmarsh common yellowthroats use the Emeryville Crescent as wintering habitat. Observations of three individuals perched on marsh gumplant (Grindelia stricta) located adjacent to the SFOBB Toll Plaza were made in December 1989 by Caltrans. The saltmarsh common yellowthroat is a species of concern under the State and Federal Endangered Species Acts.

Alameda Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia pusillula). The Alameda song sparrow prefers fresh, brackish, and salt marsh habitats. Alameda song sparrow occurs in coastal salt marsh habitat at the Emeryville Crescent, adjacent to the SFOBB Toll Plaza. There have been no observations of the Alameda song sparrow nesting in the project area; however, marsh gumplant, which occurs on the north side of the Oakland Touchdown and the YBI, may provide nesting habitat for the Alameda song sparrow. The Alameda song sparrow has been observed perching on individual gumplants within the project area. The Alameda song sparrow is designated as a species of concern under the Federal Endangered Species Act. The CESA does not address the Alameda song sparrow.

Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus). This species breeds in dense colonies that can be found on rocky coasts and offshore islands, as well as on inland lakes and rivers. Cormorants have the ability to nest at any time during the breeding season if the first nesting attempt is unsuccessful. Therefore, nests may be active any time between March and September. Double-crested cormorants have nested on the East Span of the SFOBB since 1984. The colony of double-crested cormorants includes 400 to 600 nesting pairs and represents the second-largest colony in Northern California. The highest concentrations of nesting pairs occur between Columns E5 and E15. The double-crested cormorant is designated as a species of special concern under the CESA.

California Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis californicus). The California brown pelican is known to rest on bridge footings and forage within the project area. No known nest sites occur in the project area. The California brown pelican is listed as endangered under both the State and Federal Endangered Species Acts.

Allen's hummingbird (Selasphorus sasin). Allen’s hummingbird nests in riparian, eucalyptus and cypress groves, evergreen, redwood, bushop pine forests and coastal scrub. It is found in the Bay Area from late January through July. Nesting habitat exists in the northern coastal scrub on YBI. This species is listed as a federal species of concern.

White-tailed kite (Elanus leucurus). White-tailed kites are present year-round in the Bay Area, although the population increases from September through May. Kites forage in low marsh vegetation, riparian grasslands, and agricultural areas and nest in moderately tall trees such as oaks and willows. Potential nesting habitat is present in the coast live oak woodland on YBI and foraging habitat is present in the Emeryville Crescent, outside of the project area. This species is listed as a federal and state species of concern.

American bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus). American bitterns are rare breeders in the Bay; there are no definitive breeding records for brackish and saltwater marshes in coastal California. They forage in cattail and tule marshes and other dense marsh vegetation. Dense marsh vegetation exists within the Emeryville Crescent, outside the project area. This species is listed as a federal species of concern.

Common loon (Gavia immer). The common loon nests in freshwater marshes, although it also forages and roosts in marine environments. This species has the potential to occur close to the Oakland. This species is listed as a federal and state species of concern.

Long-billed curlew (Numenius americanus). The long-billed curlew is a shorebird that is a federal species of concern. It does not breed in the Bay area, but it winters here. It is primarily a coastal species and is found in marshes and beaches. Therefore it could potentially forage in the project area.

Bank swallow (Riparia riparia). The bank swallow nests on rocky crags and cliffs. It breeds in California from late March to early May and is a rare winter visitor. Potential habitat for this species may be present along the slopes of YBI. This species is federally protected under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act and is listed as a state species of concern.

Elegant tern (Sterna elegans). The elegant tern nests in the Gulf of California, Baja California and southern California. It is a coastal bird and is frequently found in bays and esturaries. This species has the potential to occur in the project area along the sand flats on the Oakland Touchdown. This species is listed as a federal and state species of concern.

Bewick's Wren (Thryomanes bewickii). Bewick's Wren, a federal species of concern, breeds in suburban environments, farms, shrubland and open woodlands. It tends to occur in a variety of dense, shrubby habitats, including coastal scrub habitats. It can be found year round in the Bay area. It has the potential to occur in the project area.

Western Snowy Plover (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus). The western snowy plover is a small shorebird with pale coloration, making it almost completely camouflaged against a sandy background. This species remains in the state year-round where it populates open beach and coastal marsh areas. Snowy plovers have been designated as a threatened species under the Federal Endangered Species Act. The CESA includes the western snowy plover as a species of concern.

Appropriate breeding habitat for this species does not exist in the project area. The species forages over mudflats and sand flats. Sand flats are present in the area of the Oakland Touchdown for the northern alternatives (Figure 3-18 of Appendix A). Snowy plovers have not been observed in the project area.

Western Gull (Larus occidentalis). The western gull is protected under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. Western gulls nest on the column footings of the SFOBB West Span and have the potential to nest on the footings of the East Span.

Black-crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax). The black-crowned night heron is protected under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. The night heron nest and roost on YBI woodland. This species usually nests between February and July; however, it is unknown which trees might be used for nesting from year to year.

California Clapper Rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus). The California clapper rail is a year-round resident of coastal salt marshes. Individuals hide their nests among a canopy of wetland vegetation dominated by pickleweed and cordgrass. This species is known to occur in the Emeryville Crescent area, located outside the study area. Appropriate nesting and foraging habitat does not exist in the study area. Both the State and Federal Endangered Species Acts include the clapper rail as an endangered species.

California Least Tern (Sterna antillarum browni). The California least tern nests in colonies on bare or sparsely vegetated areas near the coast. This species is found in the Bay Area during the breeding season from May through August. Nesting habitat which supports the California least tern does not occur within the study area. The California least tern is designated as an endangered species under both the State and Federal Endangered Species Acts.

Shorebirds. Shorebirds that are known to occur in the project area include western sandpiper (Calidris mauri) and black-bellied plover (Pluvialis squatarola). A strip of uplands at the former Oakland Army Base property located on the south side of the Oakland Touchdown is known to provide winter roosting habitat for shorebirds during high tides. As a result of development around the Central Bay, limited upland resting areas remain available for shorebird use during the winter season.

Central Valley and Central California-Coast Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Steelhead, the anadromous form of rainbow trout, inhabit the Sacramento, Stanislaus, Tuolumne, and Merced Rivers and the mainstem of the San Joaquin River. The life history of steelhead is similar to that of chinook salmon, with two major differences. First, steelhead do not necessarily die after spawning, thus maintaining their ability to return to the Pacific Ocean after spawning in fresh water. Second, juvenile steelhead may spend up to four years residing in fresh water prior to migrating to the ocean as smolts. Typically, Sacramento steelhead migrate through San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Estuary from November through May after one year in fresh water.

Steelhead populations in the Central California Coast ESU (Evolutionary Significant Unit) and California Central Valley ESU have been listed by the NMFS as threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act (62 No. 159). Steelhead migration periods are similar to the winter-run chinook salmon which inhabit shallow water habitat during foraging.

Winter-run, Fall-run, Spring-run Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Chinook salmon are anadromous, spending three to five years at sea before returning to fresh water to spawn. San Francisco Bay serves as a conduit through which adult salmon must pass to reach their upstream spawning grounds. Additionally, juvenile smolt salmon utilize the Bay as a migration corridor to reach the Pacific Ocean. Smoltification is the physiological acclimation of juvenile salmon to full-strength sea water which occurs after completion of the freshwater rearing phase. The chinook salmon population in San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Estuary is comprised of four races: fall-run, late fall-run, spring-run and winter-run. In addition, there are two Evolutionary Significant Units (ESUs), the Sacramento River ESU and the Central Valley ESU. Each of these spawning populations is distinguished based on the timing of adult upstream migration, spawning, and juvenile downstream migration. The Sacramento River winter-run ESU is federally listed as endangered, the Central Valley spring-run ESU is listed as federally threatened, and the Central Valley fall-run and late fall-run are listed as proposed threatened.

The federally endangered Sacramento River winter-run adult chinook salmon ESU migrates through San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Estuary from December through April. Spawning is confined to the mainstem Sacramento River and occurs from mid-April through mid-July, peaking in May and June. Winter-run fry emerge from the gravel from July through October and rear to smoltification in the Sacramento River upstream from the Delta. However, in years of high Delta outflow, fry may migrate to the estuary. Generally, the period of peak outmigration through San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Estuary is between January and April. The area of designated winter-run critical habitat includes all of San Francisco Bay north of the SFOBB.

The federally threatened and proposed endangered Central Valley spring-run chinook salmon ESU enters the Sacramento River from March to July and spawns from late August through early October, with a peak in September. The area of designated winter-run critical habitat includes all waters of San Pablo Bay westward of the Carquinez Bridge and all waters of San Francisco Bay (north of the SFOBB) from San Pablo Bay to the Golden Gate Bridge.

The proposed threatened Central Valley fall-run and late fall-run chinook salmon ESU enters the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers from July through April and spawns from October through February. Both runs exhibit an ocean-type life history, migrating as fry, subyearlings, and yearlings. Winter-run, spring-run, and fall-run chinook salmon have the potential to occur in the study area.

Green Sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) and Longfin Smelt (Sprinchus thaleichtys). Habitat for the green sturgeon and longfin smelt does not occur in the project study area; however, it has the potential to occur during years of high amounts of rain. The green sturgeon is a species of special concern under the CESA. Its standing under the federal act is similar and the species is identified as a species of concern.

Pacific Herring (Clupea pallasi). Pacific herring is a small schooling marine fish which enters estuaries and bays to spawn. Pacific herring is both a popular sport fish and a commercially important species and as such is protected under the Magnuson-Stevens Act. Adult Pacific herring are seasonally abundant from October to March (the spawning season), and juvenile herring may linger in San Francisco Bay for several months after hatching. Large pre-spawning aggregations can be found in the deepwater channels of the central San Francisco Bay. Pacific herring then move into shallower areas to spawn.

Pacific herring are known to spawn throughout the intertidal and subtidal habitats within the vicinity of the project area, including eelgrass beds, on intertidal riprap along the shoreline, pilings, and seaweed, the Oakland harbor area, Alameda Island, and all around Treasure Island and YBI.

Early life stages of herring development are sensitive to environmental and human-induced stress, including non-suitable levels of water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen concentrations, suspended sediments, toxic contaminants, and sound pressure waves.

Table-2 Special Status Plant Species Potentially Occurring in the Vicinity of the SFOBB East Span Seismic Safety Project (Page 1 of 7)

 

Status

   

Species and Common Name

Federala

Stateb

CNPSc

R-E-Dd

Flowering

Period

Potential for Occurrencee

Amsinckia grandiflora

large-flowered fiddleneck

E

E

1B

3-3-3

April-May

Not present; no supporting habitat

Arabis blepharophylla

coast rock cress

--

--

4

1-1-3

Feb.-April

Not present; no supporting habitat

Arctostaphylos hookeri ssp. ravenii

Presidio manzanita

E

E

1B

3-3-3

Feb.-March

Not present; no supporting habitat

Arctostaphylos hookeri ssp. franciscana

San Francisco manzanita

SC

--

1A

none

Feb.-April

Not present; no supporting habitat

Arctostaphylos pallida

pallid manzanita

T

E

1B

3-3-3

Dec.-March

Not present; no supporting habitat

Arctostaphylos tomentosa ssp. rosei

shaggy-barked manzanita

--

--

Proposed

listing

Dec.-March

Not present; no supporting habitat

Arenaria paludicola

marsh sandwort

E

E

1B

3-3-2

May-August

Not present; no supporting habitat

Astragalus tener var. tener

alkali milk-vetch

SC

--

1B

3-2-3

March-June

Not present; no supporting habitat

Atriplex cordulata

heartscale

SC

--

1B

2-2-3

May-October

Not present; no supporting habitat

Atriplex depressa

brittlescale

SC

--

1B

2-2-3

May-October

Not present; no supporting habitat

Atriplex joaquiniana

valley spearscale

SC

--

1B

2-2-3

April-Sep.

Not present; no supporting habitat

Abridged Notes:

Federal and State: E ­ Endangered; T ­ Threatened; PE - Proposed Endangered; PT - Proposed Threatened; SC - Species of Concern; C ­ Candidate; -- - Not listed.

CNPS: 1B - Rare, threatened, or endangered in California and elsewhere; 2 - Rare, threatened, or endangered in California, but more common elsewhere; 3 - More information is needed to assign them to another list or to reject them from being listed; 4 - Limited distribution in California.

R-E-D: Three classes or degrees of concern, 1, 2, or 3 (higher numbers indicate greater concern): Rarity - extent of the plant’s distribution and number of individuals; Endangerment - plant’s vulnerability to extinction; Distribution - overall range of the plant.

Table 3.9-2 Continued (Page 2 of 7)

 

Status

   

Species and Common Name

Federala

Stateb

CNPSc

R-E-Dd

Flowering

Period

Potential for Occurrencee

Carex comosa

bristly sedge

--

--

2

3-3-1

May-Sep.

Not present; no supporting habitat

Chorizanthe cuspidata var. cuspidata

San Francisco Bay spineflower

SC

--

1B

2-2-3

April-July

Unlikely; not observed during surveys

Chorizanthe robusta var. robusta

robust spineflower

E

--

1B

3-3-3

May-Sep.

Unlikely; not observed during surveys

Cirsium fontinale var. campylon

Mt. Hamilton thistle

SC

--

1B

2-2-3

April-Oct.

Not present; no supporting habitat

Cirsium occidentale var. compactum

compact cobweb thistle

SC

--

1B

2-2-3

April-June

Not present; no supporting habitat

Clarkia concinna ssp. automixa

South Bay clarkia

SC

--

4

1-1-3

April-July

Not present; no supporting habitat

Collinsia corymbosa

round-headed Chinese houses

--

--

1B

2-2-3

April-June

Not present; no supporting habitat

Clarkia franciscana

Presidio clarkia

E

E

1B

3-3-3

May-July

Not present; no supporting habitat

Collinsia multicolor

San Francisco collinsia

--

--

4

1-1-3

March-May

Not present; marginal habitat present

Cordylanthus maritimus ssp. palustris

Pt. Reyes bird’s beak

SC

--

1B

2-2-3

April-May

Unlikely; not observed during surveys

Cordylanthus mollis ssp. hispidus

hispid bird's-beak

SC

--

1B

2-3-3

June-Sep.

Not present; no supporting habitat

Abridged Notes:

Federal and State: E ­ Endangered; T ­ Threatened; PE - Proposed Endangered; PT - Proposed Threatened; SC - Species of Concern; C ­ Candidate; -- - Not listed.

CNPS: 1B - Rare, threatened, or endangered in California and elsewhere; 2 - Rare, threatened, or endangered in California, but more common elsewhere; 3 - More information is needed to assign them to another list or to reject them from being listed; 4 - Limited distribution in California.

R-E-D: Three classes or degrees of concern, 1, 2, or 3 (higher numbers indicate greater concern): Rarity - extent of the plant’s distribution and number of individuals; Endangerment - plant’s vulnerability to extinction; Distribution - overall range of the plant.

Table 3.9-2 Continued (Page 3 of 7)

Cordylanthus palmatus

palmate-bracted bird's-beak

E

E

1B

3-3-3

May-Oct.

Not present; no supporting habitat

Deinandra bacigalupii

Livermore tarplant

SC

--

1B

3-2-3

June-Nov.

Not present; no supporting habitat

Delphinium californicum ssp. interius

interior California larkspur

SC

--

1B

3-2-3

April-June

Not present; no supporting habitat

Delphinium recurvatum

recurved delphinium

SC

--

1B

2-2-3

March-May

Not present; no supporting habitat

Erysimum franciscanum

San Francisco wallflower

SC

--

4

1-2-3

March-June

Not present; no supporting habitat

Eschscholzia rhombipetala

diamond-petaled poppy

SC

--

1B

3-3-3

March-April

Not present; no supporting habitat

Fritillaria falcata

talus fritillary

SC

--

1B

3-2-3

March-May

Not present; no supporting habitat

Fritillaria lilacea

fragrant fritillary

SC

--

1B

1-2-3

Feb.-April

Not present; no supporting habitat

Gilia capitata ssp. chamissonis

dune gilia

--

--

Proposed

listing

May-July

Unlikely; not observed during surveys

Gilia millefoliata

many-stemmed gilia

--

--

Proposed listing

April-June

Not present; marginal habitat present

Grindelia hirsutula var. maritima

San Francisco gumplant

SC

--

1B

2-2-3

Aug.-Sep.

Unlikely; not observed during surveys

Grindelia stricta var. angustifolia

marsh gumplant

--

--

4

1-1-3

Aug.-Oct.

Present

Helianthella castanea

Diablo rose-rock

SC

--

1B

3-2-3

April-June

Not present; no supporting habitat

Abridged Notes:

Federal and State: E ­ Endangered; T ­ Threatened; PE - Proposed Endangered; PT - Proposed Threatened; SC - Species of Concern; C ­ Candidate; -- - Not listed.

CNPS: 1B - Rare, threatened, or endangered in California and elsewhere; 2 - Rare, threatened, or endangered in California, but more common elsewhere; 3 - More information is needed to assign them to another list or to reject them from being listed; 4 - Limited distribution in California.

R-E-D: Three classes or degrees of concern, 1, 2, or 3 (higher numbers indicate greater concern): Rarity - extent of the plant’s distribution and number of individuals; Endangerment - plant’s vulnerability to extinction; Distribution - overall range of the plant.

Table 3.9-2 Continued (Page 4 of 7)

 

Status

   

Species and Common Name

Federala

Stateb

CNPSc

R-E-Dd

Flowering

Period

Potential for Occurrencee

Hemizonia parryi ssp. congdonii

pappose spikeweed

SC

--

1B

3-3-3

June-November

Not present; no supporting habitat

Hesperolinon congestum

Marin dwarf-flax

T

T

1B

3-3-3

May-July

Not present; no supporting habitat

Holocarpha macradenia

Santa Cruz tarplant

T

E

1B

2-3-3

June-Oct.

Unlikely; not observed during surveys

Horkelia cuneata ssp. sericea

Kellogg’s horkelia

SC

 

1B

3-3-3

April-Sep.

Unlikely; not observed during surveys

Lasthenia conjugens

Contra Costa goldfields

E

--

1B

3-3-3

March-June

Not present; no supporting habitat

Lathyrus jepsonii var. jepsonii

delta-tule pea

SC

--

1B

2-2-3

May-June

Not present; no supporting habitat

Layia carnosa

beach layia

E

E

1B

3-3-3

May-July

Not present; no supporting habitat

Lessingia germanorum

San Francisco lessingia

E

E

1B

3-3-3

Aug.-Nov.

Unlikely; not observed during surveys

Lilaeopsis masonii

Mason's lilaeopsis

SC

Rare

1B

2-3-3

April-Oct.

Not present; no supporting habitat

Lilium maritimum

coast lily

SC

--

1B

2-3-3

May-July

Not present; no supporting habitat

Linanthus grandiflorus

large-flowered linanthus

--

--

4

1-2-3

April-July

Not present; no supporting habitat

Microseris paludosa

marsh microseris

--

--

Proposed

listing

May-June

Not present; marginal habitat present

Abridged Notes:

Federal and State: E ­ Endangered; T ­ Threatened; PE - Proposed Endangered; PT - Proposed Threatened; SC - Species of Concern; C ­ Candidate; -- - Not listed.

CNPS: 1B - Rare, threatened, or endangered in California and elsewhere; 2 - Rare, threatened, or endangered in California, but more common elsewhere; 3 - More information is needed to assign them to another list or to reject them from being listed; 4 - Limited distribution in California.

R-E-D: Three classes or degrees of concern, 1, 2, or 3 (higher numbers indicate greater concern): Rarity - extent of the plant’s distribution and number of individuals; Endangerment - plant’s vulnerability to extinction; Distribution - overall range of the plant.

Table 3.9-2 Continued (Page 5 of 7)

 

Status

   

Species and Common Name

Federala

Stateb

CNPSc

R-E-Dd

Flowering

Period

Potential for Occurrencee

Monardella undulata

curly-leaved monardella

--

--

4

1-2-3

May-July

Unlikely; not observed during surveys

Myosurus minimus ssp. apus

little mousetail

SC

--

3

2-3-2

March-June

Not present; no supporting habitat

Phacelia phacelioides

Mt. Diablo phacelia

SC

--

1B

3-2-3

April-May

Not present; no supporting habitat

Piperia michaelii

Michael’s rein orchid

--

--

4

1-2-3

May-Aug.

Not present; marginal habitat present

Plagiobothrys chorisianus var. chorisianus

Choris’s popcorn flower

--

--

3

2-2-3

April-June

Not present; no supporting habitat

Plagiobothrys diffusus

San Francisco popcornflower

SC

E

1B

3-3-3

April-June

Not present; no supporting habitat

Sanicula maritima

adobe sanicle

SC

SC

1B

3-3-3

April-May

Not present; no supporting habitat

Sidalcea hickmanii ssp. viridis

Marin checkermallow

SC

--

1B

3-1-3

May-June

Not present; no supporting habitat

Silene verecunda ssp. verecunda

Mission Dolores campion

SC

--

1B

3-2-3

March-June

Unlikely; not observed during surveys

Streptanthus albidus ssp. peramoenus

most beautiful (uncommon) jewelflower

SC

--

1B

2-2-3

April - June

Not present; no supporting habitat

Abridged Notes:

Federal and State: E ­ Endangered; T ­ Threatened; PE - Proposed Endangered; PT - Proposed Threatened; SC - Species of Concern; C ­ Candidate; -- - Not listed.

CNPS: 1B - Rare, threatened, or endangered in California and elsewhere; 2 - Rare, threatened, or endangered in California, but more common elsewhere; 3 - More information is needed to assign them to another list or to reject them from being listed; 4 - Limited distribution in California.

R-E-D: Three classes or degrees of concern, 1, 2, or 3 (higher numbers indicate greater concern): Rarity - extent of the plant’s distribution and number of individuals; Endangerment - plant’s vulnerability to extinction; Distribution - overall range of the plant.

Table 3.9-2 Continued (Page 6 of 7)

Suaeda californica

California suaeda

E

--

1B

3-3-3

July-Oct.

Unlikely; not observed during surveys

Trifolium amoenum

showy Indian clover

E

--

1B

3-3-3

April-June

Not present; no supporting habitat

Triphysaria floribunda

San Francisco owl’s-clover

SC

--

1B

2-2-3

April-May

Not present; no supporting habitat

Tropidocarpum capparideum

caper-fruited tropidocarpum

SC

--

1A

--

March-April

Not present; no supporting habitat

Source: Caltrans, April 2001.

Abridged Notes:

Federal and State: E ­ Endangered; T ­ Threatened; PE - Proposed Endangered; PT - Proposed Threatened; SC - Species of Concern; C ­ Candidate; -- - Not listed.

CNPS: 1B - Rare, threatened, or endangered in California and elsewhere; 2 - Rare, threatened, or endangered in California, but more common elsewhere; 3 - More information is needed to assign them to another list or to reject them from being listed; 4 - Limited distribution in California.

R-E-D: Three classes or degrees of concern, 1, 2, or 3 (higher numbers indicate greater concern): Rarity - extent of the plant’s distribution and number of individuals; Endangerment - plant’s vulnerability to extinction; Distribution - overall range of the plant.

Table 3.9-2 Continued (Page 7 of 7)

Abbreviations:

a Federal

E - Listed as endangered under the Federal Endangered Species Act.

T - Listed as threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act.

PE - Proposed as endangered under the Federal Endangered Species Act.

PT - Proposed as threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act.

SC - Federal species of concern; USFWS lacks sufficient information to support a listing proposal.

C - Candidate species; USFWS has on file enough information to propose listing as endangered or threatened.

-- - Not listed.

b State

E - Listed as endangered under the California Endangered Species Act.

T - Listed as threatened under the California Endangered Species Act.

PE - Proposed as endangered under the California Endangered Species Act.

PT - Proposed as threatened under the California Endangered Species Act.

SC - California species of special concern.

-- - Not listed.

cCalifornia Native Plant Inventory Status (CNPS)

List 1B - Plants that are rare, threatened, or endangered in California and elsewhere.

List 2 - Plants that are rare, threatened, or endangered in California, but more common elsewhere.

List 3 - Plants about which more information is needed to assign them to another list or to reject them from being listed.

List 4 - Plants that are of limited distribution in California.

d R-E-D Code

This code is divided into three classes or degrees of concern, represented by the number 1, 2, or 3 (higher numbers indicate greater concern):

Rarity - addresses the extent of the plant’s distribution and number of individuals.

Endangerment - addresses the plant’s vulnerability to extinction.

Distribution - addresses overall range of the plant.

e Potential for Occurrence

Unlikely; not observed during surveys - suitable habitat for this species was identified in the project area; however, no observations were made during 1997 fall and 1998 spring surveys.

Present - plants of this species were found during surveys or are known to be present in the project area from literature reviews.

Not present; no supporting habitat - habitat that would support the presence of this species is not present in the project area.

Not present; marginal habitat present - marginal habitat that could support this species was found in the project area.

Table 3.9-3 Special Status Wildlife Species, Critical Habitat, and Economically Important Fish

Potentially Occurring in the Vicinity of the SFOBB East Span Seismic Safety Project (Page 1

of 15)

 

Status

 

Species and Common Name

Federala

Stateb

Potential for Occurrencec

MARINE MAMMALS

     

Arctocephalus townsendi

Guadalupe fur seal

T

T

Not present; no supporting habitat

Balaenoptera borealis

sei whale

E

--

Not present; no supporting habitat

Balaenoptera musculus

blue whale

E

--

Not present; no supporting habitat

Balaenoptera physalus

finback whale

E

--

Not present; no supporting habitat

Eschrichtius robustus

gray whale

D, MMPA

--

Present in increasing numbers December to March near Richardson Bay and the Tiburon Peninsula

Eubalaena glacialis

right whale

E

--

Not present; no supporting habitat

Eumetopias jubatus

Steller sea lion

T

--

Unlikely to occur; no known occurrences in vicinity of project area

Eumetopias jubatus

Steller sea lion

critical habitat

T

--

Critical habitat is located in San Francisco County, but not in project area and species is not known to occur in vicinity of project area

Megaptera novaeangliae

humpback whale

E

--

Not present; no supporting habitat

Abridged Notes:

Federal: : E ­ Endangered; T ­ Threatened; PE - Proposed Endangered; PT ­ Proposed Threatened; SC ­ Species of Concern; C ­ Candidate; D ­ Delisted; MMPA - Marine Mammal Protection Act; MBTA ­ Migratory Bird Treaty Act; -- ­ Not listed.

State: E ­ Endangered; T ­ Threatened; PE ­ Proposed Endangered; PT ­ Proposed Threatened; SC ­ Species of Concern; -- ­ Not listed.

Table 3.9-3 Continued (Page 2 of 15)

 

Status

 

Species and Common Name

Federala

Stateb

Potential for Occurrencec

Phoca vitulina

harbor seal

MMPA

--

Present; haul-out site located 305 meters (1,000 feet) from nearest temporary construction limit

Physeter catodon

sperm whale

E

--

Not present; no supporting habitat

Zalophus Californiaus

California sea lion

MMPA

--

Present; haul-out site located 6 kilometers (4 miles) from project site

MAMMALS

     

Corynorhinus townsendii townsendii

Pacific western big-eared bat

SC

SC

Not present; no supporting habitat

Dipodomys heermanni berkeleyensis

Berkeley kangaroo rat

SC

--

Not present; no supporting habitat

Eumops perotis californicus

greater western mastiff-bat

SC

SC

Not present; no supporting habitat

Myotis ciliolabrum

small-footed myotis bat

SC

--

Not present; no supporting habitat

Myotis evotis

long-eared myotis bat

SC

SC

Not present; no supporting habitat

Myotis thysanodes

fringed myotis bat

SC

SC

Not present; no supporting habitat

Myotis volans

long-legged myotis bat

SC

SC

Not present; no supporting habitat

Abridged Notes:

Federal: : E ­ Endangered; T ­ Threatened; PE - Proposed Endangered; PT ­ Proposed Threatened; SC ­ Species of Concern; C ­ Candidate; D ­ Delisted; MMPA - Marine Mammal Protection Act; MBTA ­ Migratory Bird Treaty Act; -- ­ Not listed.

State: E ­ Endangered; T ­ Threatened; PE ­ Proposed Endangered; PT ­ Proposed Threatened; SC ­ Species of Concern; -- ­ Not listed.

Table 3.9-3 Continued (Page 3 of 15)

 

Status

 

Species and Common Name

Federala

Stateb

Potential for Occurrencec

Myotis yumanensis

Yuma myotis bat

SC

SC

Not present; no supporting habitat

Neotoma fuscipes annectens

San Francisco dusky-footed woodrat

SC

SC

Not present; no supporting habitat

Neotoma fuscipes riparia

San Joaquin Valley woodrat

E

SC

Not present; no supporting habitat

Perognathus inornatus inornatus

San Joaquin pocket mouse

SC

SC

Not present; no supporting habitat

Plecotus townsendii townsendii

Pacific western big-eared bat

SC

SC

Not present; no supporting habitat

Reithrodontomys raviventris

salt marsh harvest mouse

E

E

Not present; no supporting habitat

Scapanus latimanus parvus

Alameda Island mole

SC

SC

Not present; no supporting habitat

Sorex vagrans halicoetes

salt marsh vagrant shrew

SC

SC

Not present; no supporting habitat

Sylvilagus bachmani riparius

riparian brush rabbit

E

E

Not present; no supporting habitat

Vulpes macrotis mutica

San Joaquin kit fox

E

T

Not present; no supporting habitat

Abridged Notes:

Federal: : E ­ Endangered; T ­ Threatened; PE - Proposed Endangered; PT ­ Proposed Threatened; SC ­ Species of Concern; C ­ Candidate; D ­ Delisted; MMPA - Marine Mammal Protection Act; MBTA ­ Migratory Bird Treaty Act; -- ­ Not listed.

State: E ­ Endangered; T ­ Threatened; PE ­ Proposed Endangered; PT ­ Proposed Threatened; SC ­ Species of Concern; -- ­ Not listed.

Table 3.9-3 Continued (Page 4 of 15)

 

Status

 

Species and Common Name

Federala

Stateb

Potential for Occurrencec

Aquila chrysaetos

golden eagle

--

SC

Not present; no supporting habitat

BIRDS

     

Agelaius tricolor

tricolored blackbird

SC

SC

Not present; no supporting habitat

Ammodramus savannarum

grasshopper sparrow

SC

--

Not present; no supporting habitat

Amphispiza belli belli

Bell’s sage sparrow

SC

SC

Not present; no supporting habitat

Asio flammeus

short-eared owl

SC

SC

Not present; no supporting habitat

Athene cunicularia hypugea

burrowing owl

SC

SC

Not present; no supporting habitat

Botaurus lentiginosus

American bittern

SC

--

Potential to occur; rare breeder in the Bay, although roosting habitat is present within the Emeryville Crescent, outside the project area

Branta canadensis leucopareia

Aleutian Canada goose

D

--

Not present; no supporting habitat

Buteo regalis

ferruginous hawk

SC

SC

Not present; no supporting habitat

Calypte costae

Costa's hummingbird

SC

--

Not present; no supporting habitat

Abridged Notes:

Federal: : E ­ Endangered; T ­ Threatened; PE - Proposed Endangered; PT ­ Proposed Threatened; SC ­ Species of Concern; C ­ Candidate; D ­ Delisted; MMPA - Marine Mammal Protection Act; MBTA ­ Migratory Bird Treaty Act; -- ­ Not listed.

State: E ­ Endangered; T ­ Threatened; PE ­ Proposed Endangered; PT ­ Proposed Threatened; SC ­ Species of Concern; -- ­ Not listed.

Table 3.9-3 Continued (Page 5 of 15)

 

Status

 

Species and Common Name

Federala

Stateb

Potential for Occurrencec

Carduelis lawrencei

Lawrence's goldfinch

SC

--

Not present; no supporting habitat

Chaetura vauxi

Vaux's swift

SC

SC

Not present; no supporting habitat

Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus

western snowy plover

T

SC

Unlikely to occur; feeding habitat along Oakland Touchdown, suitable nesting habitat not present

Charadrius montanus

mountain plover

PT

SC

Not present; no supporting habitat

Chondestes grammacus

lark sparrow

SC

--

Not present; no supporting habitat

Contopus cooperi

olive-sided flycatcher

SC

--

Not present; no supporting habitat

Dendroica occidentalis

hermit warbler

SC

--

Not present; no supporting habitat

Diomedea albatrus

short-tailed albatross

PE

--

Not present; no supporting habitat

Elanus leucurus

white-tailed kite

SC

SC

Potential to occur; feeding habitat in Emeryville Crescent outside project area, marginal nesting habitat present on YBI

Empidonax difficilis

Pacific slope flycatcher

SC

--

Not present; no supporting habitat

Abridged Notes:

Federal: : E ­ Endangered; T ­ Threatened; PE - Proposed Endangered; PT ­ Proposed Threatened; SC ­ Species of Concern; C ­ Candidate; D ­ Delisted; MMPA - Marine Mammal Protection Act; MBTA ­ Migratory Bird Treaty Act; -- ­ Not listed.

State: E ­ Endangered; T ­ Threatened; PE ­ Proposed Endangered; PT ­ Proposed Threatened; SC ­ Species of Concern; -- ­ Not listed.

Table 3.9-3 Continued (Page 6 of 15)

 

Status

 

Species and Common Name

Federala

Stateb

Potential for Occurrencec

Empidonax trailii brewster

little willow flycatcher

SC

--

Not present; no supporting habitat

Falco peregrinus anatum

American peregrine falcon

D, MBTA

E

Present; nests between upper and lower bridge deck on Column E2

Gavia immer

common loon

SC

SC

Potential to occur for foraging; nesting habitat not within the project area

Geothlypis trichas sinuosa

saltmarsh common yellow throat

SC

SC

Potential to occur; nesting habitat within the Emeryville Crescent, outside the project area

Haliaeetus leucocephalus

bald eagle

T

E

Not present; no supporting habitat

Lanius ludovicianus

loggerhead shrike

SC

SC

Not present; no supporting habitat

Larus occidentalis

western gull

MBTA

--

Present; nesting occurs on the column footings of the existing bridge

Laterallus jamaicensis

black rail

SC

T

Unlikely to occur; supporting habitat present in Emeryville Crescent, adjacent to project area on Oakland side. Species not detected in project area during surveys

Abridged Notes:

Federal: : E ­ Endangered; T ­ Threatened; PE - Proposed Endangered; PT ­ Proposed Threatened; SC ­ Species of Concern; C ­ Candidate; D ­ Delisted; MMPA - Marine Mammal Protection Act; MBTA ­ Migratory Bird Treaty Act; -- ­ Not listed.

State: E ­ Endangered; T ­ Threatened; PE ­ Proposed Endangered; PT ­ Proposed Threatened; SC ­ Species of Concern; -- ­ Not listed.

Table 3.9-3 Continued (Page 7 of 15)

 

Status

 

Species and Common Name

Federala

Stateb

Potential for Occurrencec

Melanerpes lewis

Lewis' woodpecker

SC

--

Not present; no supporting habitat

Melospiza melodia pusillula

Alameda song sparrow

SC

--

Potential to occur; nesting habitat within the Emeryville Crescent, outside the project area

Numenius americanus

long-billed curlew

SC

SC

Potential to occur

Nycticorax nycticorax

black-crowned night heron

MBTA

--

Potential to occur; nesting habitat on YBI

Oceanodroma homochroa

ashy storm-petrel

SC

SC

Not present; no supporting habitat

Pelecanus occidentalis californicus

California brown pelican

E

E

Present (Seasonally) at Coast Guard Station and on bents

Phalacrocorax auritus

double-crested cormorant

MBTA

SC

Present; nests on bridge below lower deck

Plegadis chihi

white-faced ibis

SC

SC

Not present; no supporting habitat

Rallus longirostris obsoletus

California clapper rail

E

E

Potential to occur; nesting habitat within the Emeryville Crescent, outside the project area

Riparia riparia

bank swallow

MBTA

T

Potential to occur; nesting habitat present on YBI

Abridged Notes:

Federal: : E ­ Endangered; T ­ Threatened; PE - Proposed Endangered; PT ­ Proposed Threatened; SC ­ Species of Concern; C ­ Candidate; D ­ Delisted; MMPA - Marine Mammal Protection Act; MBTA ­ Migratory Bird Treaty Act; -- ­ Not listed.

State: E ­ Endangered; T ­ Threatened; PE ­ Proposed Endangered; PT ­ Proposed Threatened; SC ­ Species of Concern; -- ­ Not listed.

Table 3.9-3 Continued (Page 8 of 15)

 

Status

 

Species and Common Name

Federala

Stateb

Potential for Occurrencec

Selasphorus rufus

rufous hummingbird

SC

--

Unlikely to occur; foraging and nesting requirements not present

Selasphorus sasin

Allen's hummingbird

SC

--

Potential to occur; nesting habitat present on YBI

Sphyrapicus ruber

red-breasted sapsucker

SC

--

Not present; no supporting habitat

Sterna antillarum browni

California least tern

E

E

Potential to occur; observed feeding in waters outside of the project area

Sterna elegans

elegant tern

SC

SC

Potential to occur

Synthliboramphus hypoleucus

Xantus' murrelet

SC

SC

Not present; no supporting habitat

Thryomanes bewickii

Bewick's wren

SC

--

Potential to occur

Toxostoma redivivum

California thrasher

SC

--

Not present; no supporting habitat

REPTILES

     

Anniella pulchra pulchra

silvery legless lizard

SC

SC

Unlikely to occur; marginal habitat; no known occurrences in project area;

Caretta caretta

loggerhead turtle

T

--

Unlikely to occur; no known occurrences in project area

Abridged Notes:

Federal: : E ­ Endangered; T ­ Threatened; PE - Proposed Endangered; PT ­ Proposed Threatened; SC ­ Species of Concern; C ­ Candidate; D ­ Delisted; MMPA - Marine Mammal Protection Act; MBTA ­ Migratory Bird Treaty Act; -- ­ Not listed.

State: E ­ Endangered; T ­ Threatened; PE ­ Proposed Endangered; PT ­ Proposed Threatened; SC ­ Species of Concern; -- ­ Not listed.

Table 3.9-3 Continued (Page 9 of 15)

 

Status

 

Species and Common Name

Federala

Stateb

Potential for Occurrencec

Chelonia mydas

green sea turtle

T

--

Unlikely to occur; no known occurrences in project area

Clemmys marmorata marmorata

northwestern pond turtle

SC

--

Not present; no supporting habitat

Clemmys marmorata pallida

southwestern pond turtle

SC

--

Not present; no supporting habitat

Dermochelys coriacea

leatherback turtle

E

--

Unlikely to occur; no known occurrences in project area

Lepidochelys olivacea

olive ridley sea turtle

T

--

Unlikely to occur; no known occurrences in project area

Masticophis flagellum ruddocki

San Joaquin coachwhip

SC

SC

Not present; no supporting habitat

Masticophis lateralis euryxanthus

Alameda whipsnake

T

(PE)

T

Not present; no supporting habitat

Phynosoma coronatum frontale

California horned lizard

SC

SC

Not present; no supporting habitat

Thamnophis gigas

giant garter snake

T

T

Not present; no supporting habitat

AMPHIBIANS

     

Ambystoma californiense

California tiger salamander

C

SC

Not present; no supporting habitat

Rana boylii

foothill yellow-legged frog

SC

--

Not present; no supporting habitat

Abridged Notes:

Federal: : E ­ Endangered; T ­ Threatened; PE - Proposed Endangered; PT ­ Proposed Threatened; SC ­ Species of Concern; C ­ Candidate; D ­ Delisted; MMPA - Marine Mammal Protection Act; MBTA ­ Migratory Bird Treaty Act; -- ­ Not listed.

State: E ­ Endangered; T ­ Threatened; PE ­ Proposed Endangered; PT ­ Proposed Threatened; SC ­ Species of Concern; -- ­ Not listed.

Table 3.9-3 Continued (Page 10 of 15)

 

Status

 

Species and Common Name

Federala

Stateb

Potential for Occurrencec

Scaphiopus hammondii

western spadefoot toad

SC

--

Not present; no supporting habitat

Rana aurora draytonii

California red-legged frog

T

SC

Not present; no supporting habitat

FISH

     

Acipenser medirostris

green sturgeon

SC

SC

Present; supporting habitat outside of project area; likely to occur during high precipitation years

*Clupea harengeus

Pacific herring

--

--

Present; eelgrass spawning habitat in project area, piling, riprap

Eucyclogobius newberryi

tidewater goby

E

SC

Unlikely to occur; spawning habitat not in project area

Hypomesus transpacificus

delta smelt

T

T

Unlikely to occur; spawning habitat not in project area

Lampetra ayresi

Pacific lamprey

SC

--

Not present; no supporting habitat

Lampetra ayresi

river lamprey

SC

SC

Unlikely to occur; supporting habitat not in project area

* The Pacific herring is a commercial fish and is considered in this document because its population in the San Francisco Bay is monitored and a concern of the California Department of Fish and Game.

Abridged Notes:

Federal: : E ­ Endangered; T ­ Threatened; PE - Proposed Endangered; PT ­ Proposed Threatened; SC ­ Species of Concern; C ­ Candidate; D ­ Delisted; MMPA - Marine Mammal Protection Act; MBTA ­ Migratory Bird Treaty Act; -- ­ Not listed.

State: E ­ Endangered; T ­ Threatened; PE ­ Proposed Endangered; PT ­ Proposed Threatened; SC ­ Species of Concern; -- ­ Not listed.

Table 3.9-3 Continued (Page 11 of 15)

 

Status

 

Species and Common Name

Federala

Stateb

Potential for Occurrencec

Oncorhynchus kisutch

Central California coast coho salmon ESU

T (PE)

E

Unlikely to occur; out of range

Oncorhynchus kisutch

Southern Oregon/ Northern California

coho salmon ESU

T

SC

Unlikely to occur; out of range

Oncorhynchus mykiss

Central California coast steelhead ESU

T

SC

Present; shallow water foraging habitat in project area

Oncorhynchus mykiss

Central-valley steelhead

ESU

T

SC

Present; shallow water foraging habitat in project area

Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

Sacramento Valley winter-run

chinook salmon ESU

E

E

Present; supporting habitat in project area

Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

Sacramento Valley winter-run chinook salmon ESU critical habitat

E

--

Present; the existing East Span of the SFOBB is considered the southern boundary of the critical habitat for the winter-run chinook

Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

Central Valley fall-run and late fall-run chinook salmon ESU

PT

--

Present; supporting habitat in project area

Abridged Notes:

Federal: : E ­ Endangered; T ­ Threatened; PE - Proposed Endangered; PT ­ Proposed Threatened; SC ­ Species of Concern; C ­ Candidate; D ­ Delisted; MMPA - Marine Mammal Protection Act; MBTA ­ Migratory Bird Treaty Act; -- ­ Not listed.

State: E ­ Endangered; T ­ Threatened; PE ­ Proposed Endangered; PT ­ Proposed Threatened; SC ­ Species of Concern; -- ­ Not listed.

Table 3.9-3 Continued (Page 12 of 15)

 

Status

 

Species and Common Name

Federala

Stateb

Potential for Occurrencec

Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

Central Valley fall-run and late fall-run chinook salmon ESU critical habitat

PT

--

The existing East Span of the SFOBB could be designated as southern boundary of critical habitat for fall-run chinook salmon

Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

Central Valley spring-run chinook salmon ESU

PE

SC

Present; supporting habitat located within project area

Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

Central Valley spring-run chinook salmon ESU critical habitat

T

T

The existing East Span of the SFOBB could be designated as southern boundary of critical habitat for spring-run chinook salmon

Pogonichthys macrolepidotus

Sacramento splittail

T

SC

Unlikely to occur; supporting habitat not in project area

Sprinchus thaleichtys

longfin smelt

SC

SC

Present; likely to occur only during high water levels

INVERTEBRATES

     

Adela oplerella

Opler’s longhorn moth

SC

--

Not present; no supporting habitat

Brachinecta longiantenna

longhorn fairy shrimp

E

--

Not present; no supporting habitat

Brachinecta lynchi

vernal pool fairy shrimp

T

--

Not present; no supporting habitat

Cicindela hirticollis gravida

sandy beach tiger beetle

SC

--

Not present; no supporting habitat

Abridged Notes:

Federal: : E ­ Endangered; T ­ Threatened; PE - Proposed Endangered; PT ­ Proposed Threatened; SC ­ Species of Concern; C ­ Candidate; D ­ Delisted; MMPA - Marine Mammal Protection Act; MBTA ­ Migratory Bird Treaty Act; -- ­ Not listed.

State: E ­ Endangered; T ­ Threatened; PE ­ Proposed Endangered; PT ­ Proposed Threatened; SC ­ Species of Concern; -- ­ Not listed.

Table 3.9-3 Continued (Page 13 of 15)

 

Status

 

Species and Common Name

Federala

Stateb

Potential for Occurrencec

Coelus globosus

globose dune beetle

SC

--

Not present; no supporting habitat

Euphydryas editha bayensis

bay checkerspot butterfly

T

--

Not present; no supporting habitat

Haliotes cracherodii

Black abalone

C

--

Not present; no supporting habitat

Haliotes sorenseni

white abalone

PE

--

Not present; no supporting habitat

Helminthoglypta nickliniana bridgesi

Bridges' Coast Range shoulderband snail

SC

--

Unlikely to occur; no known occurrences in project area

Hydrochara rickseckeri

Ricksecker’s water scavenger beetle

SC

--

Not present; no supporting habitat

Hygrotus curvipes

curved-foot hygrotus diving beetle

SC

--

Unlikely to occur; no known occurrences in project area

Icaricia icarioides missionensis

mission blue butterfly

E

--

Unlikely to occur; marginally supporting habitat in project area. Species not observed during surveys

Incisalia mossii bayensis

San Bruno elfin butterfly

E

--

Not present; no supporting habitat

Abridged Notes:

Federal: : E ­ Endangered; T ­ Threatened; PE - Proposed Endangered; PT ­ Proposed Threatened; SC ­ Species of Concern; C ­ Candidate; D ­ Delisted; MMPA - Marine Mammal Protection Act; MBTA ­ Migratory Bird Treaty Act; -- ­ Not listed.

State: E ­ Endangered; T ­ Threatened; PE ­ Proposed Endangered; PT ­ Proposed Threatened; SC ­ Species of Concern; -- ­ Not listed.

Table 3.9-3 Continued (Page 14 of 15)

 

Status

 

Species and Common Name

Federala

Stateb

Potential for Occurrencec

Lepidurus packardi

vernal pool tadpole shrimp

E

--

Not present; no supporting habitat

Lichnanthe ursina

bumblebee scarab beetle

SC

--

Not present; no supporting habitat

Linderiella occidentalis

California linderiella fairy shrimp

SC

--

Not present; no supporting habitat

Nothochrysa californica

San Francisco lacewig

SC

--

Not present; no supporting habitat

Speyeria callippe callippe

Callippe silverspot butterfly

E

--

Not present; no supporting habitat

Source: Caltrans, April 2001.

Abridged Notes:

Federal: : E ­ Endangered; T ­ Threatened; PE - Proposed Endangered; PT ­ Proposed Threatened; SC ­ Species of Concern; C ­ Candidate; D ­ Delisted; MMPA - Marine Mammal Protection Act; MBTA ­ Migratory Bird Treaty Act; -- ­ Not listed.

State: E ­ Endangered; T ­ Threatened; PE ­ Proposed Endangered; PT ­ Proposed Threatened; SC ­ Species of Concern; -- ­ Not listed.

Table 3.9-3 Continued (Page 15 of 15)

Abbreviations:

a Federal

E - Listed as endangered under the Federal Endangered SpeciesAct.

T - Listed as threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act.

PE - Proposed as endangered under the Federal Endangered Species Act.

PT - Proposed as threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act.

SC - Federal species of concern; USFWS lacks sufficient information to support a listing proposal.

C - Candidate species for which the USFWS has on file enough information to propose listing as endangered or threatened.

D - Delisted. Status to be monitored for 5 years.

MMPA - These species are protected under the Marine Mammal Protection Act.

MBTA - These species are protected under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act.

-- - Not listed.

b State

E - Listed as endangered under the California Endangered Species Act.

T - Listed as threatened under the California Endangered Species Act.

PE - Proposed as endangered under the California Endangered Species Act.

PT - Proposed as threatened under the California Endangered Species Act.

SC - California Department of Fish and Game Species of Concern.

-- - Not listed.

c Potential for Occurrence

Unlikely to occur - suitable habitat for this species was identified in the project area. However, the species is unlikely to occur due to its general avoidance of disturbed areas, lack of historic or recent occurrences near the project area, or the presence of only marginally suitable habitat.

Present - individuals of this species were found during surveys or are known to be found in the project area from literature reviews.

Not present; no supporting habitat - habitat that would support the presence of this species is not present in the project area.

3.10 HISTORIC AND CULTURAL RESOURCES

3.10.1 Regulatory Context

A cultural resources investigation was conducted in accordance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act and implementing regulations (36 CFR 800) to document the findings summarized below. On February 18, 1998, Caltrans, in conjunction with the FHWA, established an Area of Potential Effect (APE) wide enough to include all project alternatives, design options, and potential construction easements. The area was surveyed to identify cultural resources including archaeological and historic sites or properties. Accordingly, an Archaeological Survey Report (ASR), Historic Architecture Survey Report (HASR), Historic Property Survey Report (HPSR), Finding of Effect for Archaeological Resources, and Finding of Adverse Effect: Buildings and Structures were prepared for review by the State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO). Additional reports completed after publication of the DEIS include the Addendum Archaeological Survey Report — Maritime Archaeology, the Addendum Finding of Adverse Effect, and Consideration of Proposed Mitigation Measures for Project Effects on Historic Buildings and Structures.

Cultural resources investigations for the East Span Project build on previous research conducted in 1997 by the Navy for the Naval Station Treasure Island Disposal and Reuse Project and prior Caltrans investigations for seismic retrofit work on the existing SFOBB published in 1997. These investigations and research for the East Span Project have identified cultural resources that are either listed or determined eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). The SHPO has concurred with the findings of these previous investigations and with the eligibility evaluations prepared for the East Span Project.

On June 17, 1999, revised Section 106 regulations became effective. The revised regulations, issued by the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, replace the 1986 procedures. The new regulations significantly modify the Section 106 review process, introducing new streamlining while incorporating statutory changes mandated by the 1992 amendments to the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA). The historic resource evaluation work conducted for the East Span Project prior to June 1999 followed the previous Section 106 regulations. All work done after June 1999 followed the current Section 106 regulations.

The evaluation of NRHP eligibility is made by applying the Criteria of Evaluation codified in 36 CFR 60.4 as follows:

a. Are associated with events that have made a significant contribution to the broad patterns of our history; or

  1. Are associated with the lives of persons significant in our past; or
  2. Embody the distinctive characteristics of a type, period, or method of construction, or that represent the work of a master, or that possess high artistic values, or that represent a significant distinguishable entity whose components may lack individual distinction; or
  1. Have yielded or may be likely to yield information important in history or prehistory
Properties are eligible or listed at the local, state, or national level of significance.

The results of archaeological and historic architectural investigations pursuant to the National Preservation Act are presented in the following sections.

3.10.2 Archaeological Resources

One archaeological site, CA-SFr-04/H, which has both a prehistoric and historic component, has been recorded within the APE. The prehistoric component of this site is a contributing element to the eligibility of the site under Criterion D. Native American burials were reported to have been removed from this site by the University of California in 1934. Since CA-SFr-04/H has contained and may again yield human remains, its significance may extend beyond Criterion D.

The historic component of CA-SFr-04/H related to the Naval Training Station was determined to be a non-contributing element for eligibility to the National Register. Archival research does indicate, however, that there is a potential for eligible historical archaeological resources within the APE which are related to the American Period and associated with the presence of the Army Post and Depot and civilian occupation. The SHPO concurred with these findings on August 13 and 21, 1998 (see its letters in Appendix G). These potential archaeological features and their contents are valuable for what can be learned through data recovery and have no value for preservation in place. See Appendix G for SHPO views on eligibility.

The Treatment Plan, discussed in Chapter 4, will identify research questions in the archaeological research design that could be addressed by data that the historic property is likely to contain. Features will be evaluated first for integrity. The level of integrity necessary to qualify examples of various property types for the NRHP under Criterion D is measured by their ability to contain the types of data necessary to contribute to the research issues identified in the research design.

Archaeological features with documented associations and a range and quantity of artifacts are among the most important potential sources of data that can be used to address the research questions. Each feature will be evaluated using the following principles:

1) Association: Does the deposit have reliable and precise historical associations?

2) Integrity: Has the site been disturbed and to what degree?

3) Materials: Are there sufficient number and variety of types of artifacts?

4) Stratigraphy: Is there discrete vertical and horizontal stratification? and

5) Relative Rarity: Remains from a social, ethnic, or economic group that is poorly represented in the sample universe will be more important because of its rarity than remains that relate to a well-represented group.

A field test of CA-SFr-04/H was conducted in March 1998. The purpose of the field test was to examine the integrity of the prehistoric component and establish vertical and horizontal boundaries of the site. The site is represented by a well-defined prehistoric midden deposit capped by a fill layer of variable thickness that is, in turn, capped by an asphalt surface. Despite previous impacts to the midden deposit during construction of the Naval Training Station and the Bay Bridge, computer modeling suggests that 1,560 cubic meters (5,520 cubic feet) of midden with high integrity remains beneath the existing asphalt surface.

Yerba Buena Island (YBI) was occupied at times by members of the Huchiun tribelet of the Ohlone (Costanoan) group. Prior to a field test of CA-SFr-04/H in March 1998, the Native American Heritage Commission provided a list of interested Native Americans to contact. All parties on the list were contacted to seek information or concerns they might have about this site and to identify any issues they would like to see addressed in the Treatment Plan. A Native American monitor was on site during the archaeological field test investigations. Coordination will continue with interested Native Americans.

No historic or prehistoric archaeological resources were identified within the Oakland Touchdown area of the APE, and this area is considered to possess no archaeological sensitivity. Refer to Appendix G for the views of the SHPO on archaeological resources (letters dated August 13 and 21, 1998).

Archival research revealed the possibility of submerged cultural resources within the proposed project area in San Francisco Bay, including the possibility of four sunken ships. An APE was defined within the Bay with a total area of 380 hectares (940 acres) The APE includes the existing alignment, proposed alignments of the new East Span, Clipper Cove, an area east of Building 262, and a corridor 366 meters (1,200 feet) to either side of the existing bridge, which may be disturbed by dredging activities and anchor drag during construction activities.

A Phase 1 Maritime Archaeological Survey Report was completed in February 2000 to determine if any of these submerged resources are within the APE. A sonar survey of the APE did not reveal the presence of any remains of shipwrecks. However, the sonar survey did disclose the remains of the Key System Ferry Terminal. The remains of the ferry terminal were determined not to be a contributing element to the Key System railway or the Key Pier Substation. SHPO concurred with these findings on June 6, 2000. See Appendix G for SHPO views on eligibility of maritime resources.

3.10.3 Historic Architectural Resources

Archival research and field investigations were conducted for the East Span Project and documented in a Historic Architecture Survey Report. Based on these investigations, NRHP-listed and NRHP-eligible resources have been identified within the APE as defined for the build alternatives. Listed and eligible resources are described below and identified on Figures 3-21 and 3-22 in Appendix A.

San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge (SFOBB)

The SFOBB, completed in 1937, is a double-deck structure carrying five lanes of traffic on each level (see Section 1.3.1 — The San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge and Figure 1-1 in Appendix A for a (description of the SFOBB). The SFOBB was determined eligible for listing on the NRHP in 1983. An evaluation was prepared by Caltrans as part of the Historic Property Survey Report (HPSR) for the I-280 Transfer Concept Program. The evaluation concluded that the SFOBB is eligible for listing on the NRHP under Criteria A, B, and C at the national level of significance. The SHPO reviewed this documentation and concurred with the determination that the SFOBB is eligible for inclusion on the NRHP.

On August 6, 1999, the State Historical Resources Commission approved the nomination of the SFOBB for listing on the NRHP, and the nomination was forwarded to the SHPO. In December of 1999, the SHPO forwarded the nomination to the Keeper of the NRHP. The Keeper has subsequently requested additional descriptive information; the listing of the SFOBB on the NRHP is still pending. It is also a protected Section 4(f) resource, as determined by FHWA (see Section 6.3.1 — Section 4(f) Evaluation, The San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge).

The property includes entrance and exit ramps connected to the western approach and the elevated bus ramps that connect the western approach to the Transbay Transit Terminal at Mission Street between First and Fremont Streets. Twin-towered suspension spans extend from San Francisco to YBI and are connected by a massive center anchorage. On YBI, there are concrete viaducts at either end of a double-deck tunnel. Continuing eastward from the island, a series of steel truss spans carries the highway across the eastern portion of the Bay.

The lower deck of the bridge originally carried two tracks for electric streetcars in addition to three lanes for trucks, while the upper deck carried five lanes for automobiles. Rail service was terminated in 1958, and the bridge was altered to its present configuration of five traffic lanes on each level. Substantial alterations were also made to the YBI tunnel and its approaches at that time. The other major alteration of the structure occurred on the western approach ramps in San Francisco, with the construction of the freeway system in the late 1950s. This work altered much of the upper deck approach ramp between First and Fifth Streets. Maintenance work over the years and repairs made after earthquakes have resulted in other changes to the structure, but the bridge as a whole retains sufficient integrity to be listed on the NRHP.

At the time the SFOBB was first opened in 1936, it held many world records. It was the greatest bridge in the world for its cost, length, quantities of steel and concrete, weight, depth, and number of piers, the size of the bore of the tunnel on YBI, and the versatility of its engineering. Seven of its piers were deeper than any others in the world. New technologies were developed to construct the foundations. The submarine work was the greatest underwater engineering task ever undertaken. The steel for the superstructure was said to constitute the largest steel order ever placed.

Four buildings associated with the SFOBB and included in the nomination as contributors to the entire bridge are located within the project APE. These four buildings are: the Caltrans garage on YBI, the Caltrans electrical substations on YBI and at the Oakland Touchdown, and the Key Pier Substation at the Oakland Touchdown. The Caltrans garage was constructed in the late 1930s as an integral component to the SFOBB. The building is constructed of reinforced concrete (see Figure 3-23 in Appendix A). The Caltrans electrical substations are reinforced concrete structures that were constructed in the 1930s as an integral component to the SFOBB (see Figures 3-23 and 3-24 in Appendix A). The Key Pier Substation is a reinforced concrete structure that was constructed in 1926 (see Figure 3-24 in Appendix A). It was not built as a component of the SFOBB; however, it was incorporated into the bridge operation to supply power for the trains crossing the bridge. It is a contributing component of the SFOBB. It is also individually eligible for the National Register at the local level of significance under Criterion A as a rare surviving component of the historically significant Key System railway, which was an important East Bay transit system in the early 20th century.

Senior Officers’ Quarters Historic District (includes Quarters 1 to 7 and Buildings 83, 205, and 230)

The Senior Officers’ Quarters Historic District (the district) was identified as a property eligible for the National Register of Historic Places in a historic architecture survey of Yerba Buena and Treasure Islands carried out by the Navy in 1997. The district is eligible for the National Register at the local level of significance under Criteria A and C, in the areas of military history and architecture. These criteria may be applied to historic districts as well as individual historic properties; in general terms, a historic district contains a number of historic buildings, structures, or sites that are united historically, culturally, or architecturally, and that, as an assemblage, meet the National Register criteria of significance.

The district is comprised of Quarters 1 through 7 and three associated garages (Buildings 83, 205, and 230) (see Figure 3-21 in Appendix A). The seven residences are all of wood frame construction, with two full floors and dormered attic stories (see Figure 3-25 in Appendix A). They were constructed between 1900 and 1903 in the Classical Revival style. Quarters 1, the largest and most elaborate of these, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1991. It is individually listed in NRHP at the state level of significance under Criteria A and C (see Figure 3-25 in Appendix A). Buildings 83 and 230, constructed in 1918 and 1944, respectively, both have second floor living quarters. Building 205 is a single-story garage constructed in 1936. The district is significant for its association with the Naval Training Station on YBI and as a distinctive ensemble of Classical Revival residences.

The District Record prepared by the Navy for the historic district states that "the boundaries were determined to include the historic buildings of the area, and the landscape elements that tie them together." The boundaries of this roughly triangular historic district are the road to the west of Quarters 5 and 6, the lower edge of the lawn area to the east, and a line up the hill behind Quarters 1 that encompasses the formal gardens between Quarters 1 and Building 230.

Quarters 8

USCG Quarters 8 (previously owned by the Navy) is a three-story residence of Mediterranean design, built of wood with a stucco exterior on the first two floors (see Figure 3-26 in Appendix A). It was constructed in 1905 as the home of the commander of the Marine Corps detachment assigned to YBI. The property is eligible for the NRHP at the local level of significance under Criteria A and C, in the areas of military history and architecture. The house is historically significant as one of the few extant buildings from the early 20th century associated with the Naval Station on YBI and the last remaining building associated with the Marine Corps’ presence on the island. It is also architecturally significant as the work of prominent San Francisco architects James and Merritt Reid.

Quarters 9

USCG Quarters 9 (previously owned by the Navy) is a 1-1/2-story residence of wood-frame construction (see Figure 3-27 in Appendix A). The property is eligible for the NRHP at the local level of significance under Criteria A and C, in the areas of military history and architecture. It was built ca. 1916 as the residence for the civilian "master of tugs" and is the only extant building on YBI constructed for a civilian employee of the Navy. It is also one of the few surviving buildings on the island from the period of extensive growth of the Naval Station in the years before and during U.S. involvement in World War I.

Quarters 10

Naval Quarters 10 is a two-story, wood-frame residence constructed in 1948 (see Figure 3-28 in Appendix A). The property is eligible under NRHP Criterion C at the local level of significance for its architecture (Bay Area modernism). The historic property includes the garage, Building 267, which was constructed at the same time as the house and is included as a contributing component of the historic resource.

Building 262

Building 262 (often referred to as "the torpedo building"), at the eastern end of YBI, is a reinforced concrete building with a gable roof clad in corrugated metal (see Figure 3-29 in Appendix A). The property is eligible for the NRHP at the state level of significance under Criteria A and C, in the areas of military history and architecture. It was constructed for the U.S. Army in 1891, to manufacture and store mines used in coastal defenses. The building is historically significant as the only extant building associated with the 19th century Army presence on YBI. It is also significant architecturally as a pioneering example of reinforced concrete construction, a building technique that was still in its infancy in 1891.

Other Properties

No other historic properties exist within the APE. There are no California Historical Landmarks, California Points of Historical Interest, or city-designated landmarks within the APE. NRHP historic districts exist in proximity to the East Span Project APE but would not be affected by the proposed action and, thus, were not included in the APE. The USCG historic district is located to the southwest and outside the APE on YBI and would not be affected by the project. The Oakland Army Base historic district is located to the east of the APE at the Oakland Touchdown area and would not be affected by the project. Located on TI, outside of the APE, are Buildings 1, 2, and 3. All three buildings, which are eligible for listing on the NRHP, were constructed in 1939 and used in the Golden Gate International Exposition.

Concurrence

Consultation was initiated with the SHPO in June 1998, concerning eligibility of resources within the APE for the East Span Project. The SHPO responded in a letter dated August 13, 1998 (see Appendix G: Agency Consultation Letters), and concurred with National Register eligibility for Quarters 10, Navy Building 267 (the garage for Quarters 10), the Bay Bridge Oakland Substation, and the Key Pier Substation. The SHPO had concerns about the pre-1948 buildings that were considered ineligible and requested information evidencing that FHWA solicited the comments of the Navy and USCG on the eligibility of these properties. Caltrans addressed this concern, and the SHPO responded in a letter dated August 21, 1998, concurring that the buildings are not eligible (a copy of the August 21 letter can be found in Appendix G). In addition, in a letter from the SHPO regarding the proposed retrofit of the SFOBB dated August 13, 1997 (see Appendix G), the SHPO concurred that the YBI Electrical Substation and the Caltrans garage on YBI are eligible for the NRHP because they are contributors to the SFOBB as a whole.

In summary, there are nine historic properties in the APE that were assessed for effects:

1) Archaeological site CA-SFr-04/H (eligible);

2) SFOBB and contributing components (eligible; in process of being listed);

3) Key Pier Substation (contributing to SFOBB; also individually eligible);

4) Senior Officers' Quarters Historic District (eligible);

5) Quarters 1 (listed);

6) Quarters 8 (eligible);

7) Quarters 9 (eligible);

8) Quarters 10 (eligible); and

9) Building 262 (eligible).

3.11 SCIENTIFIC RESOURCES

Paleontologic resources, typically vertebrate or invertebrate fossilized remains, are afforded federal protection under 40 CFR 1508.27 as a subset of scientific resources. California Public Resources Code Section 5097.5 provides for protection of paleontological sites and features on public lands. Paleontologic resources may exist within the project APE in sediments underlying San Francisco Bay. A mammoth tooth was discovered in the 1930s within Bay sediments during construction of the existing SFOBB East Span at Pier E11. California Public Resources Code Section 5097.5 mandates that "No person shall knowingly and willfully excavate upon, or remove, destroy, injure, or deface, any…vertebrate paleontological site, including fossilized footprints…or any other paleontological…feature, situated on public lands, except with the express permission of the public agency having jurisdiction over the lands." Typically, the State Lands Commission is the designated public agency with jurisdiction. To comply with the California Public Resources Code, Caltrans would use its policy in the "Interim Guidance for the Identification, Assessment, and Treatment of Paleontological Resources," July 1991. The guidance was developed based on the "1982 Bureau of Land Management Grand Junction District, Colorado: Draft Paleontological Instruction Memo."

3.12 DISPOSAL OF DREDGED MATERIALS

3.12.1 Regulatory Context

Dredging and dredged material reuse/disposal is regulated by a number of agencies. The regulatory framework that governs dredged materials reuse/disposal include:

Federal Clean Water Act (FCWA). Section 404 of the FCWA authorizes the Army Corps of Engineers (ACOE) to issue permits regulating the discharge of dredged or fill material into the Waters of the U.S., including wetlands. Caltrans will obtain a Section 404 permit from the ACOE prior to project construction.

Rivers and Harbors Act. Section 9 of the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899 is another federal regulation that applies to the East Span Project. Section 9 prohibits the construction of any bridge, dam, dike, or causeway over or in Navigable Waterways of the U.S. without Congressional approval. Administration of Section 9 has been delegated to the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG). Caltrans will obtain a Section 9 permit (Bridge Permit) from the USCG prior to the project construction.

In a letter to the ACOE dated August 26, 1999 (see Appendix G), the USCG stated that it would use its Section 9 permit to authorize dredging related to the construction of new piers and footings and removal of existing piers. Dredging for the barge access channels would be authorized by the ACOE under Section 10 of the Rivers and Harbors Act. This section regulates dredging or disposal of dredged material, excavation, filling, or other modification of a navigable water of the United States.

Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act. The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA) regulates the ocean dumping of waste, provides for a research program on ocean dumping, and provides for the designation and regulation of marine sanctuaries. Section 102 of MPRSA authorizes EPA to issue ocean dumping permits for the transport and disposal of materials into the oceans. To protect critical ocean areas, EPA may designate the sites and time periods during which ocean disposal can occur.

Coastal Zone Management. There are three coastal zone management agencies in California: the California Coastal Commission, the San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission (BCDC), and the Coastal Conservancy. BCDC has jurisdiction over San Francisco Bay. Under the Coastal Zone Management Act, BCDC issues federal consistency determinations for projects within its jurisdiction. Together, the McAteer-Petris Act, the San Francisco Bay Plan, the Seaport Plan, Special Area Plans, and BCDC’s regulations comprise BCDC’s Federally approved Coastal Zone Management Program. The East Span Project is within BCDC’s jurisdiction. Project compliance with BCDC’s federally approved Coastal Zone Management Program is addressed through BCDC’s permitting process. Caltrans will obtain a permit and a federal consistency determination from BCDC prior to project construction.

The McAteer-Petris Act created BCDC in response to haphazard and uncoordinated filling of the San Francisco Bay. The primary purpose of the act is to promote responsible planning and development of San Francisco Bay. The act emphasizes the elimination of unnecessary fill in the Bay, the use of the Bay for water-oriented purposes, and the provision of maximum feasible public access consistent with a proposed project. The act requires that a project have permits to fill, to extract materials, and to make substantial changes in use of land, water, or existing structures in the Bay. BCDC prepared the San Francisco Bay Plan (1969) which established policies to guide development in and along the Bay through a permitting process (see Section 3.1.3 — Adopted Goals and Policies).

Long-Term Management Strategy (LTMS) and Dredged Material Management Office (DMMO). In 1990, a consensus-based approach, the "Long-Term Management Strategy" (LTMS), was initiated by a group of federal, state, and local agencies to address and resolve the issue of dredging and dredged material disposal in the Bay Area. The signatories to the LTMS are the California State Lands Commission, San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission, San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

In 1995, the LTMS program signatories established the Dredged Material Management Office (DMMO). The multi-agency DMMO seeks to foster a comprehensive and consolidated approach to handling dredged material management issues. While not a signatory, the California Department of Fish and Game also provides advice and expertise to the DMMO.

The DMMO program is reviewed every six months and is charged with fostering a comprehensive and consolidated approach to the processing of dredging reuse/disposal permit applications.

An LTMS Policy Environmental Impact Statement/Programmatic Environmental Impact Report (1998) developed policy recommendations and strategies for the placement of dredged material in the Bay region. The LTMS has three objectives:

Each of those objectives translates, respectively, into the following LTMS proposed actions:

The DMMO also reviews sediment sampling plans and results of sediment testing to assess the suitability of placing the sediment at various reuse/disposal sites.

One of the DMMO's goals is to evaluate whether dredged materials are suitable for unconfined aquatic disposal (SUAD) or not suitable for unconfined aquatic disposal (NUAD).

Although the DMMO issues a recommendation regarding dredged material reuse/disposal based on sediment testing results, the individual agencies that comprise the DMMO must still issue specific regulatory approvals for projects.

3.12.2 Sediment Sampling and Analysis

Caltrans has conducted sampling and analysis of sediments that would be dredged at the locations of new columns for the Preferred Alternative (Replacement Alternative N-6) and at barge and construction access areas for the northern replacement alternatives for the East Span Project. A DMMO-approved Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) to characterize sediments was developed through the DMMO review and comment process. Caltrans understands that additional sediment characterization may be required by DMMO if an alternative other than Replacement Alternative N-6 is selected. Caltrans also understands that, for all replacement alternatives, the sediments in the barge access channel for dismantling the existing bridge would need to be characterized in the future.

Results of Sediment Testing

The sediment testing evaluated the physical, chemical, and biological make-up of potential dredged material. The sediments encountered during the investigation were primarily silt and clay. Chemical analyses indicated that although some metals were detected in site sediments at levels exceeding San Francisco Estuary ambient concentrations, the majority of organic and inorganic analyte concentrations in site sediments were similar to concentrations detected in baseline sediments. Elevated levels of total polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (5,840 micrograms per liter [m g/L]) were detected at some column locations near Yerba Buena Island (YBI).

Liquid/suspended phase bioassays using sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus/Lytechinus pictus), shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), and fish (Citharichthys stigmaeus) were performed to evaluate the effect of site sediments on water column organisms in comparison with applicable baseline sediments. The results do not preclude any site sediments from disposal in the Bay or ocean or reuse at upland wetland reuse sites.

Solid phase bioassays using amphipods (Ampelisca abdita) and worms (Nephtys caecoides) were performed to evaluate the effect of site sediments on benthic organisms in comparison with applicable baseline sediments. The results of solid phase bioassays indicate that sediments from several locations near the Oakland Touchdown are not suitable for disposal in the Bay or ocean and reuse at upland wetland reuse sites. These sediments would be properly disposed of at various commercial landfills.

Bioaccumulation testing was performed using clams (Macoma nasuta) and worms (Nephtys caecoides) to evaluate site sediment with deep ocean baseline sediment. PAH bioaccumulation was observed in sediments from near YBI and near the Oakland Touchdown, precluding sediments from these areas from disposal at the deep ocean site. Bioaccumulation observed at all other sites was not considered sufficient to restrict disposal of these site sediments at disposal sites in the Bay, ocean, or beneficial reuse at upland wetland sites.

In its letter of October 31, 2000 (see Appendix G for a copy of the letter), the DMMO made the following conclusions regarding the disposal of dredged materials:

  1. Up to 248,219 cubic meters (324,681 cubic yards) of site sediments are suitable for unconfined aquatic disposal (in-Bay and deep ocean) and;

2. Up to 319,181 cubic meters (417,503 cubic yards) of site sediments are suitable for beneficial reuse at upland wetland sites.

As discussed above, any sediment not suitable for the above sites would be properly disposed of at a landfill.

See Section 4.14.10 — Construction Excavation and Dredging for a discussion of project dredging quantities.