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The Final Environmental Impact Statement/Statutory Exemption Volume I

San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge East Spans Seismic Safety Project
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PREFACE

TABLE OF CONTENTS

SUMMARY S-1

S.1 Project Vicinity and Project Limits S-1
S.2 Purpose of and Need for the Project S-1
S.3 Project Description S-2

S.3.1 No-Build Alternative S-2
S.3.2 Replacement Alternative N-6 (Preferred) S-2
S.3.3 Replacement Alternative N-2 S-2
S.3.4
Replacement Alternative N-6 S-4
S.3.5
Retrofit Existing Structure Alternative S-4 S-4
S.3.6
Preferred Alternative and Least Environmentally Damaging Practicable Alternative S-4
S.3.7
Design Variations S-4
S.3.8
Costs S-5
S.3.9
Accommodation of Multi-Modal Strategies S-5
S.3.10 Alternatives Considered But Withdrawn S-6
S.3.11 Design Variations Considered But Withdrawn S-7

S.4 Environmental and Socioeconomic Impacts and Proposed Mitigation Measures S-7
S.5 Consultation and Coordination S-8

S.5.1 Project Organization and Committees S-8
S.5.2 Key Interagency Coordination S-9
S.5.3 Community Involvement S-13

S.6 Approvals Required S-14
S.7 Controversial Issues S-15
S.8 Major Unresolved Issues with Other Agencies
S.9 Final Steps

CHAPTER 1: PURPOSE OF AND NEED FOR PROJECT 1-1 1.1 Project Purpose 1-1

1.2 Need for Project 1-2

1.2.1 Lifeline Con nection 1-3
1.2.2 People, Freight and Goods Movement 1-5
1.2.3 Current Roadway Design Standards 1-6

1.3 Background 1-7

1.3.1 The San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge 1-7
1.3.2 Overview of the Seismic Retrofit Program 1-8
1.3.3 Effects of the Loma Prieta Earthquake and a Maximum Credible Earthquake 1-8
1.3.4 Analysis of Potential Retrofit of SFOBB East Span 1-9
1.3.5 Analysis of Potential Replacement of the SFOBB East Span 1-10
1.3.6 Other SFOBB Seismic Safety Projects 1-10
1.3.7 Legislative Framework 1-11
1.3.8 Concurrence in the Purpose and Need Statement 1-13

CHAPTER 2: PROJECT ALTERNATIVES 2-1

2.1 Introduction 2-2

2.1.1 Development of Alternatives 2-2
2.1.2 Project Limits/Location 2-2

2.2 Alternatives Considered 2-3

2.2.1 No-Build Alternative 2-4
2.2.2 Replacement Alternative N-6 (Preferred Alternative) 2-4
2.2.3 Replacement Alternative N-2 2-5
2.2.4 Replacement Alternative S-4 2-5
2.2.5 Retrofit Existing Structure Alternative 2-6
2.2.6 Preferred and Least Environmentally Damaging Practicable Alternative (LEDPA) 2-8

2.3 Replacement Alternatives Design Variations 2-11

2.3.1 Main Span Types 2-11

2.4 Comparison of Alternatives Characteristics 2-14

2.4.1 Funding 2-14
2.4.2 Costs 2-15
2.4.3 Constructibility 2-17
2.4.4 Ability to Address the Project Purpose and Need 2-18

2.5 Accommodation of Multi-Modal Strategies 2-19

2.5.1 Historical Background 2-20
2.5.2 MTC SFOBB Rail Feasibility Study 2-21
2.5.3 Operational Issues 2-23
2.5.4 Institutional and Funding Issues 2-25

2.6 Construction Activities 2-28

2.6.1 Retrofit Existing Structure 2-29
2.6.2 Bridge Replacement Alternatives 2-31 2.6.3 Dismantling of the Existing SFOBB East Span 2-38
2.6.4 Temporary Detours on Yerba Buena Island and Oakland Touchdown Area 2-40

2.7 Alternatives Considered and Withdrawn 2-42

2.7.1 Replacement Alternative N-1 2-42
2.7.2 Replacement Alternative N-3 2-43
2.7.3 Replacement Alternative N-4 2-43
2.7.4 Replacement Alternative N-5 2-44
2.7.5 Replacement Alternative S-1 2-44
2.7.6 Replacement Alternative S-2 2-49
2.7.7 Replacement Alternative S-3 2-50
2.7.8 Double-deck Alternative 2-50
2.7.9 Design Variations Considered 2-51
2.7.10 Temporary Detours on Yerba Buena Island Considered and Withdrawn 2-54

CHAPTER 3: AFFECTED ENVIRONMENT 3-1

3.1 Community Setting 3-2

3.1.1 Existing Land Uses in the Project Vicinity 3-3
3.1.2 Developable Land and Development Trends 3-8
3.1.3 Adopted Goals and Policies 3-11
3.1.4 Demographic Characteristics of the Project Area and Inclusive Census Tracts 3-16
3.1.5 Fiscal Conditions 3-18
3.1.6 Community Services 3-19
3.1.7 Environmental Justice 3-22

3.2 Transportation Setting 3-23

3.2.1 Traffic 3-23
3.2.2 Transit 3-25
3.2.3 Non-Motorized Traffic: Bicycles and Pedestrians 3-25
3.2.4 Maritime Traffic 3-27
3.2.5 Truck Routes and Truck Traffic 3-28
3.2.6 Parking 3-28
3.2.7 Federal Aviation Administration 3-28
3.2.8 United States Coast Guard 3-28

3.3 Visual Setting 3-29

3.3.1 Existing Visual Character and Context 3-29
3.3.2 Existing Landscape Units and Visual Image Types 3-30
3.3.3 Viewer Groups and Viewpoints 3-31

3.4 Air Quality 3-35

3.4.1 Regulatory Context 3-35
3.4.2 Meteorology and Topography 3-38
3.4.3 Existing Project Area Air Quality 3-38

3.5 Noise and Vibration 3-40

3.5.1 Noise 3-40
3.5.2 Land Uses and Noise- and Vibration-sensitive Receptors 3-41
3.5.3 Noise Abatement Criteria and Analysis Guidelines 3-42
3.5.4 Noise and Vibration Measurements, Model Calibration, and Noise Modeling 3-43
3.5.5 Existing Noise Levels 3-44
3.5.6 Existing Measured Vibrations 3-45

3.6 Hazardous Wastes 3-50

3.6.1 Legal and Regulatory Requirements 3-50
3.6.2 Existing Data Review 3-51
3.6.3 Regulatory Database Search 3-51
3.6.4 Historical Information Update and Site Reconnaissance 3-51
3.6.5 Potential Sources of Contamination 3-51

3.7 Geology, Soils, and Seismicity 3-55

3.7.1 Regional Geologic Setting 3-55
3.7.2 Regional Seismic Setting and Seismicity 3-55
3.7.3 Geology and Geotechnical Conditions in the Project Area 3-56
3.7.4 Tsunamis 3-58

3.8 Water Resources and Quality 3-59

3.8.1 Regulatory Setting 3-59
3.8.2 Existing Drainage Patterns and Water Quality 3-60
3.8.3 Groundwater 3-62

3.9 Natural Resources 3-63

3.9.1 Regulatory Setting 3-63
3.9.2 Vegetative Communities and Wildlife 3-64
3.9.3 Estuarine Environment and Associated Species 3-65
3.9.4 Wetlands and Waters of the United States 3-69
3.9.5 Jurisdiction of the Bay Conservation Development Commission 3-72
3.9.6 Plants and Wildlife 3-72

3.10 Historic and Cultural Resources 3-101

3.10.1 Regulatory Context 3-101
3.10.2 Archaeological Resources 3-102
3.10.3 Historic Architectural Resources 3-104

3.11 Scientific Resources 3-108 3.12 Disposal of Dredged Materials 3-109

3.12.1 Regulatory Context 3-109 3.12.2 Sediment Sampling and Analysis 3-111

CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES AND MITIGATION MEASURES 4-1

4.1 Community Impacts 4-1

4.1.1 Social and Economic Impacts 4-1
4.1.2 Community Services 4-3
4.1.3 Environmental Justice 4-4
4.1.4 Impacts to Existing Land Use 4-5
4.1.5 Development Trends 4-9
4.1.6 Adopted Goals and Policies 4-15

4.2 Transportation 4-23

4.2.1 Vehicular Circulation and Access 4-23
4.2.2 Non-Motorized Traffic: Bicycles and Pedestrians 4-25
4.2.3 Parking 4-27
4.2.4 Marine Traffic 4-28
4.2.5 Air Traffic 4-30

4.3 Visual Impact Analysis 4-31

4.3.1 Visual Impacts Resulting in Changes Within Landscape Units and Visual Image Types 4-31
4.3.2 Impacts on Views from the Bridge 4-34
4.3.3 Impacts on Views to the Bridge 4-36
4.3.4 Impacts Due to the Removal of Vegetation and Slope Disturbance on Yerba Buena Island and at the Oakland Touchdown Area 4-42

4.4 Air Quality 4-45

4.4.1 Methodology 4-45
4.4.2 Impacts 4-46
4.4.3 Air Quality Conformity 4-46

4.5 Noise and Vibration 4-48

4.5.1 Noise Levels on Yerba Buena Island, Treasure Island, and Oakland Touchdown Area 4-48
4.5.2 Noise on the Bicycle/Pedestrian Path 4-53
4.5.3 Vibration 4-54

4.6 Hazardous Wastes 4-55

4.6.1 Summary and Comparison of Alternatives 4-55
4.6.2 Further Investigations 4-60
4.6.3 Mitigation 4-61

4.7 Geology, Soils, and Seismicity 4-63

4.7.1 Soil and Rock Stability and Settlement 4-63
4.7.2 Seismicity 4-65
4.7.3 Tsunamis 4-66

4.8 Water Quality 4-67

4.8.1 Surface Water Quality 4-67
4.8.2 Groundwater Quality 4-71

4.9 Natural Resources 4-72

4.9.1 Placement of Fill in San Francisco Bay 4-72
4.9.2 Special Aquatic Sites 4-78
4.9.3 Special Status Species 4-83
4.9.4 Other Natural Communities 4-85
4.9.5 Consultation and Coordination 4-85
4.9.6 Mitigation 4-86

4.10 Historic and Cultural Resources 4-89

4.10.1 Consultation 4-90
4.10.2 Impacts to Archaeological Resources 4-91
4.10.3 Impacts to Historic Architectural Resources 4-92

4.11 Scientific Resources 4-99
4.12 Utilities Relocation 4-100
4.13 Energy 4-102

4.13.1 Analysis Methodology 4-102
4.13.2 Impacts 4-103

4.14 Temporary Impacts During Construction Activities 4-107

4.14.1 Community Impacts 4-107
4.14.2 Transportation Impacts During Construction 4-109
4.14.3 Construction-period Visual Impacts 4-113
4.14.4 Construction-period Air Quality 4-114
4.14.5 Construction-period Noise and Vibration 4-115
4.14.6 Hazardous Wastes 4-119
4.14.7 Water Resources and Water Quality 4-120
4.14.8 Natural Resources 4-121
4.14.9 Historic and Cultural Resources 4-131
4.14.10 Construction Excavation and Dredging 4-131

4.15 Cumulative Impacts 4-138

4.15.1 Regulatory Framework 4-138
4.15.2 Methodology and Format 4-138
4.15.3 Land Use 4-140
4.15.4 Transportation 4-144
4.15.5 Visual Quality 4-147
4.15.6 Air Quality 4-149
4.15.7 Noise and Vibration 4-150
4.15.8 Hazardous Wastes 4-152
4.15.9 Geology, Soils, and Seismicity 4-153
4.15.10 Water Quality 4-154
4.15.11 Natural Resources - Bay Fill 4-156
4.15.12 Natural Resources - Special Aquatic Sites 4-159
4.15.13 Natural Resources - Special Status Species 4-161
4.15.14 Other Natural Communities 4-165
4.15.15 Historic Resources: Historic Bridges 4-166
4.15.16 Historic Resources: Historic Buildings 4-168
4.15.17 Cultural Resources: Archaeological Resources 4-170
4.15.18 Energy 4-171
4.15.19 Dredging 4-17

4.16 Irreversible and Irretrievable Commitment of Resources 4-174
4.17 Relationship between Local Short-term Uses of the Environment and the Maintenance and Enhancement of Long-term Productivity 4-175

CHAPTER 5: CEQA STATUS AND FINDINGS 5-1

CHAPTER 6: SECTION 4(f) EVALUATION 6-1

6.1 Introduction 6-1

6.1.1 Section 4(f) 6-1
6.1.2 Final Section 4(f) Evaluation 6-2
6.1.3 Section 4(f) and Section 106 ("Use" versus "Adverse Effect") 6-3

6.2 Proposed Action - Project Need and Description 6-3

6.2.1 Need for Project 6-4
6.2.2 Description of the East Span Seismic Safety Project 6-4
6.2.3 Preferred Alternative 6-6

6.3 Description of Section 4(f) Resources Used by Project Alternatives 6-7

6.3.1 The San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge 6-7
6.3.2 The Senior Officers’ Quarters Historic District 6-9
6.3.3 Gateway Park 6-9

6.4 Use of Section 4(f) Resources by Project Alternatives 6-10

6.4.1 East Span of the SFOBB and its Contributing Components 6-10
6.4.2 Senior Officers’ Quarters Historic District 6-11
6.4.3 Gateway Park 6-16
6.4.4 Summary of Project Uses of Section 4(f) Resources, by Alternative 6-18

6.5 Avoidance Alternatives 6-19

6.5.1 Build Alternatives that Avoid All Section 4(f) Uses 6-19
6.5.2 Alternatives that Avoid Individual Section 4(f) Uses 6-20

6.6 Measures to Minimize Harm 6-21

6.6.1 Historic Resources 6-21
6.6.2 Gateway Park 6-24

6.7 Other Park, Recreational Facilities, Wildlife Refuges, and Historic Properties Evaluated Relative to the Requirements of Section 4(f) 6-25

6.7.1 Introduction 6-25
6.7.2 Other Public Park and Recreational Facilities Within the Project Area 6-25
6.7.3 Other Historic Sites Evaluated 6-28

6.8 Coordination 6-42

6.8.1 Historic Resources 6-42
6.8.2 Gateway Park 6-44
6.8.3 Radio Beach 6-44
6.8.4 Summary of Formal Coordination with the Department of the Interior 6-45

6.9 Conclusions 6-46

    6.9.4 Concluding Statement 6-4

6.10 Index of Section 4(f) Correspondence 6-4

Appendices

Appendix A - Figures
Appendix B - List of Preparers
Appendix C - Distribution List
Appendix D - Definitions and Acronyms
Appendix E - Consultation and Coordination
Appendix F - NEPA/404 Integration Process
Appendix G - Agency Consultation Letters
Appendix H - Notice of Exemption
Appendix I - Relocation Assistance Information
Appendix J - Bibliography
Appendix K - Seismic Design
Appendix L - Title VI Policy Statement
Appendix M Dredged Material Management Plan (DMMP)
Appendix N Conceptual Mitigation Plan for Special Aquatic Sites
Appendix O Memorandum of Agreement
Appendix P Noise Abatement Analysis

 

The Final Environmental Impact Statement/Statutory Exemption
Volume II
San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge East Spans Seismic Safety Project

TABLE OF CONTENTS

SECTION I: DEIS COMMENTS AND RESPONSES

Federal Agencies

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers dated 10/27/1998 1-1
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers dated 11/18/1998 1-8
U.S. Coast Guard dated 11/16/1998 1-16
U.S. Coast Guard dated 11/17/1998 1-32
U.S. Coast Guard dated 11/20/1998 1-35
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency dated 11/23/1998 1-40
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services dated 11/5/1998 1-57
U.S. Department of Interior dated 12/18/1998 1-60
National Marine Fisheries Service dated 11/25/1998 1-67
U.S. Navy dated 11/23/1998 1-69
Continued U.S. Navy dated 11/23/1998 1-69

State Agencies

California Department of Fish and Game dated 12/8/1998 1-109
California Regional Water Quality Control Board dated 10/23/1998 1-118
San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission dated 12/17/1998 1-121

Regional and Local Agencies

AC Transit dated 10/1/1998 1-131
AC Transit dated 11/23/1998 1-135
Bay Area Rapid Transit District dated 11/2/1998 1-153
East Bay Municipal Utility District dated 11/20/1998 1-157
East Bay Regional Park District dated 10/29/1998 1-163
Port of Oakland dated 11/23/1998 1-171

Local Governments
City of Emeryville Mayor Ken Bukowski dated 10/26/1998 1-176
City of Oakland Landmarks Preservation Advisory Board dated 11/23/1998 1-179
City of Oakland Planning Department dated 11/20/1998 1-190
City and County of San Francisco Mayor Brown dated 11/23/1998 1-212
City and County of San Francisco Planning Department dated 11/23/1998 1-217
Continued City and County of San Francisco Planning Department dated 11/23/1998 1-217

Organizations

Bay Bridge Bicycle/Pedestrian Advisory Committee dated 11/19/1998 1-257
Bay Trail Project dated 11/23/1998 1-264
Bike the Bridge Coalition dated 11/23/1998 1-267
California Preservation Foundation dated 11/23/1998 1-286
Deborah Sivas (Stanford Environmental Clinic for Earth Island Institute) by email dated 11/9/1998 1-292
Golden Gate Audubon Society dated 11/6/1998 1-298
League of Women Voters dated 11/8/1998 1-307
Marin Audubon Society dated 11/8/1998 1-311
National Trust for Historic Preservation dated 11/23/1998 1-319
Pacific Bell dated 9/29/1998 1-327
Regional Bicycle Advisory Committee dated 11/20/1998 1-330
San Francisco Planning and Urban Research Association dated 11/23/1998 1-333
Save San Francisco Bay Association dated 11/23/1998 1-340
Sierra Club #1 dated 11/23/1998 1-345
Sierra Club #2 dated 11/23/1998 1-349
Sierra Club dated 11/31/1998 1-354

Individuals

David Benfell from San Francisco Public Hearing dated 10/15/1998 1-357
William Black from Oakland Public Hearing dated 10/14/1998 1-359
Steven Bodzin by e-mail dated 11/23/1998 1-361
Dick Borke from San Francisco Public Hearing dated 10/15/1998 1-369
Perry Brissette by e-mail # 1 dated 10/15/1998 1-371
Perry Brissette by e-mail # 2 dated 10/15/1998 1-373
Leal Charonnat by e-mail dated 11/9/1998 1-376
Mike Davis from a Public Hearing 1-378
Meribeth Fisher from San Francisco Public Hearing dated 10/15/1998 1-380
Glenn Goldstein from Vallejo Public Hearing dated 10/22/1998 1-382
Debbie Hubsmith dated 11/23/1998 1-384
Neal Johnson by e-mail dated 11/1/1998 1-390
Michael Katz by e-mail dated 11/23/1998 1-392
S.D. Louchis from Walnut Creek Public Hearing dated 10/20/1998 1-397
John Maybury dated 9/25/1998 1-400
Stacey McCahan from San Francisco Public Hearing dated 10/15/1998 1-402
Clement Okoh, Ph.D. from Oakland Public Hearing dated 10/14/1998 1-404
Michele Radcliffe from San Francisco Public Hearing dated 10/15/1998 1-406
Joan Ross from San Francisco Public Hearing dated 10/15/1998 1-408
Derek Shuman by e-mail dated 11/29/1998 1-410
Tony Simoni from Vallejo Public Hearing dated 10/22/1998 1-424
Jim Stallman from San Francisco Public Hearing #1 dated 10/15/1998 1-426
Jim Stallman from San Francisco Public Hearing #2 dated 10/15/1998 1-428
Richard Stowe by e-mail #1 dated 11/9/1998 1-431
Richard Stowe by e-mail #2 dated 11/23/1998 1-435
Robert Swierk by e-mail dated 10/20/1998 1-441
Autumn Wagner from San Francisco Public Hearing dated 10/15/1998 1-443
Tes Welborn from San Francisco Public Hearing dated 10/15/1998 1-445
Michael Wienold from Vallejo Public Hearing dated 10/22/1998 1-447
Oakland Public Hearing (October 14, 1998) Transcript 1-449
San Francisco Public Hearing (October 15, 1998) Transcript 1-466
Walnut Creek Public Hearing (October 20, 1998) Transcript 1-478
Vallejo Public Hearing (October 22, 1998) Transcript 1-495

SECTION II: DMMP COMMENTS AND RESPONSES

Federal Agencies

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers dated 8/6/1999 2-1
U.S. Coast Guard dated 7/21/1999 2-3
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency dated 8/20/1999 2-5
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service dated 7/7/1999 2-14
U.S. Navy dated 8/2/1999 2-17

State Agencies

San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission dated 7/22/99 2-20

Regional and Local Agencies

East Bay Municipal Utility District dated 7/7/1999 2-27
Port of Oakland dated 7/21/1999 2-32

Local Governments

City of Berkeley dated 7/21/1999 2-39
City of Oakland dated 7/20/1999 2-42
City of San Francisco dated 7/21/1999 2-44

Organizations

League of Women Voters of the Bay Area dated 7/20/1999 2-48
Marin Audubon Society dated 7/19/1999 2-50

SECTION III: SUPPLEMENTAL DRAFT 4(f) EVALUATION COMMENTS AND RESPONSES

Federal Agencies

U.S. Department of Interior dated 9/2/1999 3-1

Regional and Local Agencies

East Bay Regional Park District dated 9/15/1999 3-4

Local Governments

City of Oakland, Planning Department dated 8/18/1999 3-6
City of San Francisco dated 8/24/1999 3-13

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